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managing pain in ME …

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Of late, especially over the last five years or so, pain has become and is very much a biggie for me … it is in fact my worse ME symptom, consisting of face, eye, head, upper back, arm, wrist, hand, leg, foot, ankle, and widespread nerve pain.

Actually, correction, when I think about it I have always had pain as part of my ME. It’s just that it has only been in the last 5-7 years that I have been medicating for the pain.

I do recall several doctors, years ago (1987), prescribing me all kinds of pain medications that I was reluctant to take until I could no longer cope with the pain levels. It took from then, approximately 1987, until around 2015 before I began to resort to taking pain medications.

definitions …

Let’s first take a look at severe ME symptoms and how ‘ME’ is defined:

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex multi-system disease with many symptoms that may change over time and differ from patient to patient. The most common symptoms of ME/CFS are post-exertional malaise (worsening of symptoms upon even minimal exertion), unrefreshing sleep, profound fatigue, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, and pain.
The cause of ME/CFS is currently unknown, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors appear to be relevant. There are no specific diagnostic tests or FDA approved treatments available.

workwell foundation severe ME ...

Given those two describers I have to wonder why my pain has never really been directly linked with or to my condition severe ME, until meeting my last GP. I do have additional diagnosis’ of conditions that have pain as a main symptom or part of their symptom list, including fibromyalgia, migraine, TMJ, hemicrania continua, as well as and on top of the severe ME diagnosis, and so I am uncertain which causes the most pain. Nevertheless, whichever causes it doesn’t really matter. It is enough to state that pain is definitely a large part of my illness.

I would like to point out a few things at this point.

Firstly, it took until 2001 to actually diagnose me with ME.

Secondly, I do not think the general doctor (GP), in the UK, is taught enough or knows enough about either of the conditions I have. Plus, I think the diagnosis of ME/CFS and / or fibromyalgia is used a catch all, it was in my own case, when all other tests return negative and so bloods do not tell the doctor anything they understand in terms of a diagnosis, it is then they may then refer to your condition as ME/CFS and / or fibromyalgia.

This is my diagnosis, well the diagnosis I got in 2001, which was a long time after I first got sick and a much longer time ago before I became severe, ME/CFS and / or fibromyalgia that is exactly how it is written in the letter from my consultant in 2001.

Thirdly, some doctors don’t even believe in ME and so their patients will get an even rougher deal.

not good enough …

However, this really is not good enough. Dr Nina Muirhead and the Medical Education Working Group have together designed a new training course for health professionals. The working group was formed from members of the UK CFS and ME Research Collaborative (CMRC) and have co-opted in representatives from various NHS fields to develop this resource.

The aim of the new document is to ensure health professionals are up to date with the latest biomedical research, have a clear overview of the condition and symptoms, as well as make them aware of the evidence of harms from graded exercise therapy.

The course was put together using patient stories as case studies to ensure that patient experience is at the heart of what health professionals learn about ME/CFS. Dr Muirhead, who has ME and spoke about her experience at the CMRC conference in March, is now working with organisations including Action for ME to distribute this training course as far and wide as possible.

workwell foundation videos …

Additionally, I was utterly shocked to hear in one of the workwell foundation educational videos … that pain features highly in ME, especially severe ME and that the type of pain ME sufferers have also responds well to opiate based pain medications. This is certainly true for me and my kind of pain.

I have been ill since 1984 and have always been fed the idea that because my fatigue element wasn’t my worse symptoms and that because it was pain I was told I may have a fatigue that relates to always having migraine pain not in fact severe ME. No where was ME, at any level, ever mentioned regarding my condition until around 2000.

For instance, migraine fatigue. Because migraine features heavily in my ME too. And so any fatigue was often blamed on continual migraine exhaustion.

Then to watch these videos, specifically the two in the severe ME/CFS section, it was, and still is, shocking; it made me cry to realise and know that they were describing me in their words and the term they used was severe ME.

medications …

When you are in pain, day after day, month after month, year upon year, treating that pain becomes paramount. Because always being in pain wears you out and wears you down often making you feel like you want to give up.

Interestingly, I find if I can manage my pain well, even if it hasn’t completely gone, but if I can get it to levels that I can personally cope with, then my life outlook is much better and I don’t feel as sad about the monumental loss involved in having ME, even though I’m not doing stuff.

As I mentioned above, pain medications have been offered to me for years before I eventually started to take them and now I sadly cannot get out of bed without them.

Additionally, I have been offered anti-depressants that also work as a migraine and pain medication. However, these don’t suit me and trigger terrible anxiety, which is not by any mean an answer or fix to my pain.

As well, I have been offered other migraine preventative medications in the form of a beta blocker. Again, the side effects were more unbearable than the pain.

You see, pain is familiar to me. I have had pain now for over 35 years so I know and understand it. Whereas, extra fogginess in my brain and dizziness and cloudy thoughts are not what I need on top of pain. You see, the medications I’ve tried so far haven’t taken the pain away they’ve simply lessened it. Thus making it more bearable.

I have also tried two nerve pain medications, gabapentin and pregabalin. Both of which had some very unwelcome side effects without actually making much difference to the pain levels.

the dreaded opioids …

Finally, I have to discuss the opioid based pain medications that some ‘do good’ type researchers, who don’t have any pain let alone the kind that responds to opiate based medications, have decided are not good for you and need to be used sparingly and withdrawn from those who maybe addicted.

These researchers are now claiming that regular use opiate based pain medications cause rebound pain. And off the back of this NICE are addressing this by adapting their guidelines for pain and pain medication treatments.

However, apparently and according to other researchers, specifically those working with ME / fibromyalgia and other pain patients, these opioids are in fact the ace for ME / fibromyalgia pain.

They certainly work for me and my kind of pain and are what allow me to get out of bed most days.

NICE please be careful in your guidelines that you take care not to take away mine, and many other’s, lifeline, I sincerely need these opiate pain medications to get out of bed and face the day, still in pain but much less so.

groundhog day …

Every morning when I wake it’s like ‘groundhog day’. This is because I wake as though I have some extremely serious illness, like a brain tumour, meningitis or septicaemia or some other very serious illness.

I always wake with a blistering headache, which is so painful I can’t find words to describe it, my eyes feel like someone is trying to screw them out, my neck feels unbearably tense, and rigidly stiff, I ache severely all over and feel like I am seriously unwell.

In order for me to be able to face the day after waking up so poorly, I need to approach each day carefully and kindly.

And so what I do is this:

I take my pain medications the second I open my eyes, as long as it fits in with the pattern of taking them the previous day, (usually made up of 1 cocodamol and 1 syndol). I always have my earphones in from the night before and so I put on a meditation, if I can cope with noise. I lay there and just breathe through the meditation or silence, whichever is most suitable to how I feel. I breathe consciously, slowly and as deeply as I can and try to instil peace, calm and healing in myself. In with the peace and out with the pain, in with the relaxing and out with the tensions, and so on.

Most days, within an hour I am ready to go downstairs and make myself a latte, which I bring back upstairs and drink in bed in the dark.

However, sometimes they don’t work enough for me to be able to move. This is mainly when the headache is a migraine or a cluster headache, and so I get myself ice packs for my head, eyes, and upper back, and then an hour later I take 3 dispersible aspirin (3 @ 300mg tablets).

Unfortunately, even this sometimes doesn’t work neither. In this case, I endeavour to sleep through it in order to escape the pain using safe quantities and safely spaced out pain medications and copious ice pack (two shelves of our freezer are given over to ice packs of one kind or another).

Then three hours later I will take a second dose of 2 cocodamol and once it works, which it can do by this time, I will then get myself a latte and take it back to bed and enjoy it it the dark.

Sadly though, there are many really really bad days where I have to spend the whole day in bed, using pain medications and ice packs, as well as sleeping, to escape the pain and be able to get through it.

I would like to also add here, for information and to answer those who may claim that some of these symptoms could be linked to withdrawal. I get the very same symptoms after any kind of sleep, even if I sleep as soon as taking my pain medications and then wake an hour later. I still feel as above. The problem here is not pain medication withdrawal or pain rebound. The problem is clearly sleep related. Instead of feeling better after sleep, I almost always feel magnitudes worse and much sicker.

Sleep makes me poorly.

a struggle …

I may make dealing with this sound very simplistic but it isn’t by any means easy. I just know I don’t have much of a choice, which is how I face each day …

I don’t have a choice really …

I either deal with it or I end it by committing suicide!

accepting the reality …

There is no choice in this matter.

Accepting it, how it is, is nonnegotiable.

a rock and a hard place …

Accepting the reality has to be the most difficult aspect you have to overcome with this illness.

The reality that you are alone in navigating the illness and all its symptoms.

You are not put under the care of a medical team.

Your GP doesn’t take you under his wing and keep responsibility for you.

No one wants to know.

You are very much alone with ME.

what this means on a personal level …

No one is taking care of me.

No one cares:

If I feel as though I always smell because I can’t bathe when I want.

That I never get dressed.

That I only bathe every ten days or so, it used to be seven days but I can no longer manage this.

That I feel so horribly less than …

No one is managing my medications or my dietary needs.

No one is monitoring my health, be that my physical or my mental health.

I have to take care of this all myself.

I have to be astute enough to know when the daily ever morphing serious illness feelings and the ever changing and never ending symptoms are life threatening or simply ME again in one of its many guises. And when I may be going under on an emotional or mental level.

No one. Only me.

You are so alone with all of this …

It is absolutely no wonder that …

people with ME are six times
more likely to commit suicide

in summary & in conclusion …

Medications for pain are paramount and it is up to you to fight for the kind that works for you. Plus, it’s also up to you, as sick as you are, to manage your own illness and know when you need additional assistance in other areas. Like for, personal care, diet, health, both physical and mental.

You are alone and that’s hard. But you must value your life and fight for your rights too.

a personal concluding note …

You are completely alone.

Don’t forget this, ever. Because, as harsh as it sounds, It will protect you.

Consequently, my advice would be to join an online community. Find your tribe. Get close to them and support and take care of one another. These kindred souls will be invaluable. And I am afraid, at least for now anyway, they will be the only set of people who will truly ‘get’ what you are going through and what you are experiencing. They will be the ones that will give you the best help and advice you could get on the condition and all its nuances.

Take care. Love yourself and your fellow human. xXx

Please feel free to contact me to share your outcomes or with any questions you may have.

 fragmented.ME xXx

Last Updated on 12/05/2022 by fragmented_ME

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My birth name is Denise, but I’m know as Bella to those who love me. I have a first class honours degree in education & psychology and a strong passion to keep learning and educating others ... I have severe ME/CFS and lots of other chronic illnesses and I started this blog as an expansion to my instagram page, where I advocate for chronic illness. I am married and have two grown up boys, or should I say young men. I have three gorgeous grandchildren, one boy and two girls. And despite being chronically sick and housebound I am mostly happy. 🥰

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10 steps to practicing Radical Acceptance
according to DBT’s founder, Marsha Linehan:


1.  Observe that you are questioning or fighting reality (“it shouldn’t be this way”)

2.  Remind yourself that the unpleasant reality is just as it is and cannot be changed (“this is what happened”)

3.  Remind yourself that there are causes for the reality (“this is how things happened”)

4.  Practice accepting with your whole self (mind, body, spirit) - Use accepting self-talk, relaxation techniques, mindfulness and/or imagery

5.  List all of the behaviors you would engage in if you did accept the facts and then engage in those behaviors as if you have already accepted the facts

6.  Imagine, in your mind’s eye, believing what you do not want to accept and rehearse in your mind what you would do if you accepted what seems unacceptable

7.  Attend to body sensations as you think about what you need to accept

8.  Allow disappointment, sadness or grief to arise within you

9.  Acknowledge that life can be worth living even when there is pain

10.  Do pros and cons if you find yourself resisting practicing acceptance

Logo of ijpsych

2009 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 239–241.
doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285
PMCID: PMC2802367
PMID: 20048445

The biochemistry of belief

Address for correspondence: Dr. TS Sathyanarayana Rao, Department of Psychiatry, JSS University, JSS Medical College Hospital, M.G. Road, Mysore - 570 004, India. E-mail: moc.oohay@91oarsst
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

“Man is what he believes”

Anton Chekhov

Beliefs are basically the guiding principles in life that provide direction and meaning in life. Beliefs are the preset, organized filters to our perceptions of the world (external and internal). Beliefs are like ‘Internal commands’ to the brain as to how to represent what is happening, when we congruently believe something to be true. In the absence of beliefs or inability to tap into them, people feel disempowered.

Beliefs originate from what we hear - and keep on hearing from others, ever since we were children (and even before that!). The sources of beliefs include environment, events, knowledge, past experiences, visualization etc. One of the biggest misconceptions people often harbor is that belief is a static, intellectual concept. Nothing can be farther from truth! Beliefs are a choice. We have the power to choose our beliefs. Our beliefs become our reality.

Beliefs are not just cold mental premises, but are ‘hot stuff’ intertwined with emotions (conscious or unconscious). Perhaps, that is why we feel threatened or react with sometimes uncalled for aggression, when we believe our beliefs are being challenged! Research findings have repeatedly pointed out that the emotional brain is no longer confined to the classical locales of the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus.[1] The sensory inputs we receive from the environment undergo a filtering process as they travel across one or more synapses, ultimately reaching the area of higher processing, like the frontal lobes. There, the sensory information enters our conscious awareness. What portion of this sensory information enters is determined by our beliefs. Fortunately for us, receptors on the cell membranes are flexible, which can alter in sensitivity and conformation. In other words, even when we feel stuck ‘emotionally’, there is always a biochemical potential for change and possible growth. When we choose to change our thoughts (bursts of neurochemicals!), we become open and receptive to other pieces of sensory information hitherto blocked by our beliefs! When we change our thinking, we change our beliefs. When we change our beliefs, we change our behavior.

A mention of the ‘Placebo’ is most appropriate at this juncture. Medical history is replete with numerous reported cases where placebos were found to have a profound effect on a variety of disorders. One such astounding case was that of a woman suffering from severe nausea and vomiting. Objective measurements of her gastric contractions indicated a disrupted pattern matching the condition she complained of. Then a ‘new, magical, extremely potent’ drug was offered to her, which would, the doctors proclaimed, undoubtedly cure her nausea. Within a few minutes, her nausea vanished! The very same gastric tests now revealed normal pattern, when, in actuality, she had been given syrup of ipecac, a substance usually used to induce nausea! When the syrup was presented to her, paired with the strong suggestion of relief of nausea, by an authority figure, it acted as a (command) message to the brain that triggered a cascade of self-regulatory biochemical responses within the body.[2] This instance dramatically demonstrates that the influence of placebo could be more potent than expected drug effect.

An important observation was that, part of the placebo response seemed to involve the meaning of the disorder or the illness to the individual. In other words, the person's belief or how she/he interprets (inter-presents or internally represents) directly governs the biological response or behavior. Another remarkable study involved a schizophrenic. This woman was observed to have split personality. Under normal conditions, her blood glucose levels were normal. However, the moment she believed she was diabetic, her entire physiology changed to become that of a diabetic, including elevated blood glucose levels.[3]

Suggestions or symbolic messages shape beliefs that in turn affect our physical well being. Several cases of ‘Disappearance of warts’ have been reported by Ornstein and Sobel wherein they ponder on how the brain translates the suggestions (sometimes using hypnosis) into systematic biochemical battle strategies such as chemical messengers sent to enlist the aid of immune cells in an assault on the microbe-induced miniature tumor or probably small arteries are selectively constricted, cutting off the vital nutrient supply to warts but not touching the neighboring healthy cells.[2]

Findings of carefully designed research indicate that our interpretation of what we are seeing (experiencing) can literally alter our physiology. In fact, all symptoms of medicine work through our beliefs. By subtly transforming the unknown (disease/disorder) into something known, named, tamed and explained, alarm reactions in the brain can be calmed down. All therapies have a hidden, symbolic value and influence on the psyche, besides the direct specific effect they may have on the body.

Just as amazingly life-affirming placebos are, the reverse, “Nocebo' has been observed to be playing its part too. It is associated with negative, life-threatening or disempowering beliefs. Arthur Barsky, a psychiatrist states that it is the patient's expectations – beliefs whether a drug or procedure works or will have side effects – that plays a crucial role in the outcome.[4]

The biochemistry of our body stems from our awareness.[5] Belief-reinforced awareness becomes our biochemistry. Each and every tiny cell in our body is perfectly and absolutely aware of our thoughts, feelings and of course, our beliefs. There is a beautiful saying ‘Nobody grows old. When people stop growing, they become old’. If you believe you are fragile, the biochemistry of your body unquestionably obeys and manifests it. If you believe you are tough (irrespective of your weight and bone density!), your body undeniably mirrors it. When you believe you are depressed (more precisely, when you become consciously aware of your ‘Being depressed’), you stamp the raw data received through your sense organs, with a judgment – that is your personal view – and physically become the ‘interpretation’ as you internalize it. A classic example is ‘Psychosocial dwarfism’, wherein children who feel and believethat they are unloved, translate the perceived lack of love into depleted levels of growth hormone, in contrast to the strongly held view that growth hormone is released according to a preprogrammed schedule coded into the individual's genes!

Providing scientific evidence to support a holistic approach to well being and healthcare, Bruce Lipton sheds light on mechanism underlying healing at cellular level. He emphasizes that ‘love’ is the most healing emotion and ‘placebo’ effect accounts for a substantial percentage of any drug's action, underscoring the significance of beliefs in health and sickness. According to him, as adults, we still believe in and act our lives out based on information we absorbed as children (pathetic indeed!). And the good news is, we can do something about the ‘tape’ our subconscious mind is playing (ol' silly beliefs) and change them NOW.[6] Further recent literature evidences provided knowledge based on scientific principles of biology of belief. There are limited studies on clinics of traditional beliefs and if we get more scientific data, we can use these traditional systems in clinical mental health management. Human belief system is formed by all the experiences learned and experimented filtered through personality.[7] The senses to capture inner and outer perceptions have higher brain potentials. Some questions that arise in this context are, does the integration and acceptance of these perceptions result in the establishment of beliefs? Does the establishment of these beliefs depend on proof demonstrations? The proofs might be the perceptions, which we can directly see or having scientific proof or custom or faith.[8,9] Beliefs are developed as stimuli received as trusted information and stored in the memory. These perceptions are generalized and established into belief. These beliefs are involved in the moral judgment of the person. Beliefs help in decision-making. Bogousslavsky and Inglin explained that, how some physicians were more successful by taking an account of patient beliefs. Beliefs influence factors involved in the development of psychopathology. They also influence the cognitive and emotional assessment, addictiveness, responses to false positives and persistent normal defensive reactions. Total brain function is required in stabilizing the belief and in responding to environmental system. Some of the brain regions and the neural circuits are very important in establishing beliefs and executing emotions. Frontal lobes play a major role in beliefs. Mental representations of the world are integrated with sub-cortical information by prefrontal cortex. Amygdala and Hippocampus are involved in the process of thinking and thus help in execution of beliefs. NMDA receptor is involved in thinking and in the development of beliefs. These beliefs are subjected to challenge. A belief that is subjected to more challenges becomes stronger. When a new stimulus comes, it creates distress in the brain with already existing patterns. The distress results in the release of dopamine (neurotransmitter) to transmit the signal.[10,11] Research findings of Young and Saxe (2008) revealed that medial prefrontal cortex is involved in processing the belief valence.[12] Right temporoparietal junction and precuneus are involved in the processing of beliefs to moral judgment. True beliefs are processed through right temporoparietal junction.[13,14] Saxe (2006) explained that beliefs judging starts at the age of five years citing example of judging of belief questions on short stories by the children.[15] Belief attribution involved activating regions of medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyri and hippocampal regions. Studies by Krummenacher et al, have shown that dopamine levels are associated with paranormal thoughts suggesting the role of dopamine in belief development in the brain.[16] Flannelly et al, illustrated on how primitive brain mechanisms that evolved to assess environmental threats in related psychiatric disorders.[17] Also were highlighted the issues such as the way beliefs can affect psychiatric symptoms through these brain systems. The theories discussed widely are related to (a) link psychiatric disorders to threat assessment and (b) explain how the normal functioning of threat assessment systems can become pathological. It is proposed that three brain structures are implicated in brain disorders in response to threat assessment and self-defense: the regions are the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia and parts of limbic system. The functionality of these regions has great potential to understand mechanism of belief formation and its relevance in neurological functions/dysfunctions. Now it is clear that biology and physiology of belief is an open area for research both at basic and clinical level. The future directions are to develop validated experimental or sound theoretical interpretation to make ‘BELIEF’ as a potential clinical management tool.

Perceptual shifts are the prerequisites for changing the belief and hence changing the biochemistry of our body favorably. Our innate desire and willingness to learn and grow lead to newer perceptions. When we consciously allow newer perceptions to enter the brain by seeking new experiences, learning new skills and changed perspectives, our body can respond in newer ways –this is the true secret of youth. Beliefs (internal representations/interpretations) thus hold the magic wand of remarkable transformations in our biochemical profile. If you are chasing joy and peace all the time everywhere but exclaim exhausted, ‘Oh, it's to be found nowhere!’, why not change your interpretation of NOWHERE to ‘NOW HERE’; just by introducing a gap, you change your awareness – that changes your belief and that changes your biochemistry in an instant!

Everything exists as a ‘Matrix of pure possibilities’ akin to ‘formless’ molten wax or moldable soft clay. We shape them into anything we desire by choosing to do so, prompted, dictated (consciously or unconsciously) by our beliefs. The awareness that we are part of these ever-changing fields of energy that constantly interact with one another is what gives us the key hitherto elusive, to unlock the immense power within us. And it is our awareness of this awesome truth that changes everything. Then we transform ourselves from passive onlookers to powerful creators. Our beliefs provide the script to write or re-write the code of our reality.

Thoughts and beliefs are an integral part of the brain's operations. Neurotransmitters could be termed the ‘words’ brain uses to communicate with exchange of information occurring constantly, mediated by these molecular messengers. Unraveling the mystery of this molecular music induced by the magic of beliefs, dramatically influencing the biochemistry of brain could be an exciting adventure and a worth pursuing cerebral challenge.


1. Candace Pert. Molecules of emotion: Why you feel the way you feel. New York, USA: Scribner Publications; 2003. ISBN-10: 0684846349.
2. Ornstein R, Sobel D. The healing brain: Breakthrough discoveries about how the brain keeps us healthy. USA: Malor Books; 1999. ISBN-10: 1883536170.
3. Robbins A. Unlimited power: The new science of personal excellence. UK: Simon and Schuster; 1986. ISBN 0-7434-0939-6.
4. Braden G. The spontaneous healing of belief. Hay House Publishers (India) Pvt. Ltd; 2008. ISBN 978-81-89988-39-5.
5. Chopra D. Ageless body, timeless mind: The quantum alternative to growing old. Hormony Publishers; 1994. ISBN -10: 0517882124.
6. Lipton B. The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter and miracles. Mountain of Love Publishers; 2005. ISBN 978-0975991473.
7. Bogousslavsky J, Inglin M. Beliefs and the brain. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:129–32. [PubMed: 17622716]
8. Gundersen L. Faith and healing. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:169–72. [PubMed: 10644287]
9. Mueller PS, Plevak DJ, Rummans TA. Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:1225–35. [PubMed: 11761504]
10. Patel AD, Peretz I, Tramo M, Labreque R. Processing prosodic and musical patterns: A neuropsychological investigation. Brain Lang. 1998;61:123–44. [PubMed: 9448936]
11. Tramo MJ. Biology and music. Music of the hemispheres. Science. 2001;291:54–6. [PubMed: 11192009]
12. Young L, Saxe R. The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. Neuroimage. 2008;40:1912–20. [PubMed: 18342544]
13. Aichhorn M, Perner J, Weiss B, Kronbichler M, Staffen W, Ladurner G. Temporo-parietal junction activity in theory-of-mind tasks: Falseness, beliefs, or attention. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:1179–92. [PubMed: 18702587]
14. Abraham A, Rakoczy H, Werning M, von Cramon DY, Schubotz RI. Matching mind to world and vice versa: Functional dissociations between belief and desire mental state processing. Soc Neurosci. 2009;1:18. [PubMed: 19670085]
15. Saxe R. Why and how to study Theory of Mind with fMRI. Brain Res. 2006;1079:57–65. [PubMed: 16480695]
16. Krummenacher P, Mohr C, Haker H, Brugger P. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009 Jun 30; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed: 19642883]
17. Flannelly KJ, Koenig HG, Galek K, Ellison CG. Beliefs, mental health, and evolutionary threat assessment systems in the brain. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:996–1003. [PubMed: 18091193]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

HRPacing ...


Heart Rate Pacing is a technique used to stay within ones energy reserves. The anaerobic threshold (AT) is the heart rate at which aerobic energy surges. The threshold is often around about 60% of a ones maximum heart rate, though each person is different and an individual's threshold may vary from day to day or within a day.

(Note: Maximum heart rate is 220 minus ones age. For a 50 year old, 60% of maximum heart rate is (220 - 50) x 0.6 = 102 bpm.)


* Changes colour to indicate:

- Resting - (REST) Lavender

- Recovery (RECOVER) - Green (RHR + 10%)

- Exertion (EXERT) - Orange (RHR + 20%)

- Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - Red ((220-50)x0.6)

* Set an alert based on:

- reaching Anaerobic Threshold Zone, or

- custom set Maximum Heart Rate.

* Set the Anaerobic Threshold Tolerance from 0.6 (default) to 0.5 if desired.

* Set a custom interval between alerts (15 secs default).

* Displays 12/24 hour clock based on user settings in Fitbit profile.

cognitive deficits in patients with ME/CFS …

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... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for a monthly session by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my follow up treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

Thank you very much !

… duplicitous …

duplicitous …

summary of the 5 major diagnostic criteria from 1988 onwards …

summary of the 5 major diagnostic criteria from 1988 onwards …

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