fragmented.ME …
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a week with ME … Q1

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I know I keep my ‘fortnightly catch up …’ journal posts, but this blog post is going to be more in-depth than those. It is going to be a no holes barred, fly on the wall, week with ME. So expect swearing and talk about death & dying, and possibly this might lead on to wanting to die and suicide references.

One thing there won’t be, even though you’re spending a week, mostly in bed, with ME, is sex. There won’t be any sex or sex references, except for this one LoL …

   . . .   a   w e e k   ( s a d l y   m o s t l y  i n   b e d )   w i t h  M E   . . .   

day 1: Monday … 

It’s a Monday and I woke at 07:15 with my typical ME symptoms. Like I have flu, a bad headache, which is not a migraine but almost as painful but without the neurological symptoms I get with migraine. I take my pain medications and lay there as still as possibly breathing deeply and thinking as peacefully as possible, while I wait for the medications to do their magic.

During This first hour it’s crucial I stay as calm, peaceful and still, both physically and psychologically as it can mean the difference between getting benefit from my pain medications and them not working at all.

An hour later I get myself a latte and a travel mug of French Earl Grey tea and take them back to bed.

A further hour later I decide that today, even though I still have pain and my left eye feels like someone is twisting it out of its socket, I must have a bath. I’ve been quite sick and sweaty of late and my sense of smell is keen and I smell myself. So a bath it is.

I’m torn between a Molton Brown bath soak, that smells fairly strong, or something that doesn’t smell at all. The smell will mask the smell of me but might also make the eye pain worse.

I usually get the eye pain as part of cluster headaches. I have oxygen for these but really strangely enough I find that taking oxygen exhausts me further.

I opt for the Molton Brown smell as I really can’t stand my own smell.

That’s it, that’s me done for the day now. My HR is between 100-150 and I’m just trying desperately to recover. The rest of the day is spent lay flat on the settee kind of looking out of the patio windows.

I ate tea, my husband makes this for us each night, at 18:00.

At 20:00, after I brush my teeth downstairs, we watch 2 hours of TV, which is too much for me today and by 22:00 when we go to bed I’m feeling quite poorly sick again.

I listen to an audio book and fall asleep quite quickly.

day 2: Tuesday … 

Woke with a migraine. Took tablets and went back to sleep until 14:00, waking regularly and taking tablets four hourly.

The thing is I half knew yesterday it, the migraine, was coming. I never said anything above because I was hoping not to be correct. More and more I’m able to tell the night before that I will have a migraine the following day. But, I’m not always right, so I do have hope when I get the migraine premonition that I could be wrong.

As well, I am always extra poorly the day following a bath. The energy I use, which I don’t actually have, just makes me sicker and depending on my starting state of none health (I can’t say health here because I honestly don’t have any), anyway depending how unwell I am when I have the bath can mean the difference between feeling more poorly or triggering a full blown migraine later on that day or the following day.

I got up and made my first drink of the day, a latte, at 15:00. I brought it back upstairs to have in bed.

I stayed in bed until tea time at 18:00. Ate my tea and we watched an hour of TV. This made me really unwell again and I had to go back to bed for the night.

day 3: Wednesday … 

Day 2 of my migraine. Yesterday, because of the migraine I took my full allowed amount of pain medications, which include paracetamol. Paracetamol is the drug that causes the most accidental overdoses in all over the counter medicines. Because of this, and because I take them daily so will have a build up inside me, I always stick to the rules. Plus, sick as I am, I actually want to live and love being alive.

I woke at 05:30, which was much earlier than yesterday. So, I couldn’t take any medication until 07:15 (as discussed in the preceding paragraph) and I still had a lot of pain. My husband got me two ice packs, one for my eyes and one for my head / neck, and I lay and listen to a ‘calm’ meditation over and over until I could take the pain medications. I then slept, except for tablet times, until 14:00 again.

I woke at this time feeling much better and I got up and sat downstairs with a latte.

I lay flat on the settee for the rest of the day until tea time, 18:00.

Because of my experience last night, we didn’t put the TV on until 20:00. We watched an hour and then I just lay quietly on the settee until 22:00, when we went to bed.

I have again taken the full allowed amount of pain medications so I need to stay asleep until at least 07:15 so that I can take my tablets as soon as I open my eyes. There’s no point in hoping I won’t need them because that is an extremely rare occurrence.

day 4: Thursday … 

Awful, awful day. I’m writing this from memory because on the actual day I couldn’t do a thing but lay there and look at the bedroom ceiling. Every turn over in the bed was too much never mind each trip to the loo.

I woke exceptionally early as I usually do if I have high pain levels, or a migraine. On first waking it was too early to take my pain medications. Not because of the previous day’s medication time table, I couldn’t take them, just because if I took them that early, then how would I get through the day.

On a high pain day it’s more important than ever for me to space out my tablets as much as I can so that I can get through the full day. So I went back to sleep and at 06:30 I woke again and took my first pain medications and went back to sleep.

Today, I spent the whole day in bed. No latte, no tea, no warm drink just a bottle of Evian, pain medications and plenty of ice packs.

I did listen to podcasts, and a specific radio drama, true story, it’s more like a monologue (actually I do not know want to call it). Whatever it is, I listened to this several times today. I often revert to this when I need to fall asleep.

It’s called Goodbye to All This …
it’s a story about losing the man you love and going on without him; about raising two girls through grief, being alone and surviving – mostly intact.
The lady who wrote and presents it is called Sophie Townsend. She has an incredibly soothing voice. While the whole story is captivating and moving. It makes me cry but it also soothes me too. It’s a sad but hopeful and very honestly real story.

Whenever I’m struggling I will often revert to listening to this. I sincerely hope the BBC never take it down. Some days, it’s a life line.

Today was nothing more than survival. Getting through days like this are where I have to completely let go of any pretence and accept this is the reality of how poorly I am actually am.

YIKES … I’ve done it again, I have made a mistake with my pain medications and took them an hour too early. FFS how many times will I do this before I accidentally overdose? I have an app that I use, but when I’m as sick as I was today I often can’t look at my phone screen and take my medications by memory. My memory was I only took six yesterday, but in fact I took the full eight. Oh, well it’s now Friday, as I write this day retrospectively, and I’ve just realised today what I did yesterday and I’m still alive.

* note to self … always always use your medication app, but especially when you are extra poorly …

day 5: Friday … 

Better than yesterday, but not by much.

In bed all day. Blinds shut.

Actually, no I take that back. Today I’ve had latte, French Earl Grey tea, food, and chicken Kiev and chips for my tea. And I was able to catch up with the blog post. I don’t often do timescale posts because I can’t work to order I need plenty of leeway, which is why on my ‘fortnightly catch up …’ blog posts there is the MIA … option used frequently. Extremely useful for me, but it also gives you, the reader, a clue as to days when I do bloody nothing at all. Which seems to be most days I’m afraid.

I’ve also had my full allocation of pain medication for three days in a row now and today is going to make it four days in a row. Writing this has just made me realise I took my pain medication too early yesterday, when I was extra sick. This is bad for my liver but also has the potential to turn into accidental overdose pretty easily because I take pain medications that include full dose paracetamol every day.

Paracetamol is both acutely and accumulatively toxic. Toxic doses of paracetamol may cause severe hepatocellular necrosis which may ultimately be fatal. Liver damage is maximal 3 – 4 days after paracetamol overdose. Therefore, even if there are no significant early symptoms, patients who report taking a paracetamol overdose should be transferred to an acute hospital urgently.

Boy do I hate this illness.

18:00 : teatime and I smell so bad. So I quickly went into the bathroom and changed my smalls (LoL BIGS), and had a very quick mini wipe wash, so I could cope with myself and I didn’t offend the hubby. I’m exhausted now. Can’t eat my tea yet. My HR is mental at above 150+ just because I did that little bit of personal care.

day 6: Saturday … 

I feel so poorly and so useless and I want to share this with you all. I hope by sharing it you who are poorly will feel less alone and if you share your own personal experiences we may also find how we feel, and spend are days, are quiet normal for people so poorly.

I think today I have to push and have a bath and wash my hair. I honestly cannot remember when I last washed my hair. And even though I don’t feel as though I’ve gotten over the last few days yet, I do feel I must get in the bath and wash away all the sweat.

We do have showers in the house but they are not in use (that’s another very long story), and what it means for now, and the past three years plus is that I have to use the bath. Bathing is quite exhausting for me. I get through it all, and often scrimp on bits, but by the end I’m totally wiped out and know the next next day I will have lots of pain, bad head pain, maybe even a full on migraine. Because of this I don’t often bathe. I think if I had someone to prepare the bath and clean it for me afterwards I may take more baths. That said, I do find I get eczema and dry skin these days, and so each bath strips my natural oils and I have to replenish them with body creams (if I had a helper I might try a bath oil every other day to avoid this and only wash my hair in the bath once a week). I really couldn’t let anyone wash me or cream me (never, well not yet anyway, but with each drop in ability I find myself letting go of the things I’ve previously said never about, so who knows what’s next …).

mini update: Bath done. Clean PJs. Wet, but clean hair. Totally exhausted. Just lay in bed listening to my HR buzzing away to let me know I’m over my AT.

I fell asleep and slept until teatime. Got up. Ate tea. Watched two hours of TV. Back to bed by 22:30.

day 7: Sunday … 

WTAF … mega mega poorly. No migraine but full on ‘I’ve got something serious’ feeling.

I went downstairs at 10:30. Stayed on the settee all day. Managed to take three lots of pain medication (six tablets in total), which is excellent considering how I feel.

By teatime I felt very hungry and ravaged my food. Watched TV for three hours and came to bed by 22:30. WoW am I really living the life and living it up right now LoL …

what kind of a week was this …

This has been a not so goodish, not the worse, but typical, kind of week for me. I live my life in pain. I take pain medications every single day. But some weeks, everyday is like Tuesday and Thursday and by the end of it I just want it to end or for me to die peacefully in my sleep. I accept these feeling as only natural, because it’s horrific living like this, even on my good days. So, too many bad days and I just don’t have the skills needed to want to keep going. My hope is not strong enough or it is fading.

That said, please don’t misunderstand this post. I am in no way actively suicidal. I’m just exhausted and struggling with the skills of wanting to keep going while in so much pain and exhaustion. Finding, life and enjoyment and, I guess, hope when you don’t have much to live for is difficult.

follow up …

I think I may do one of these ‘a week with ME …’ blog posts quarterly (one every three months). So if I say this is the March one, just so my month coincides with a year as I understand it, I will be due the next blog post at the end of June, to be posted maybe beginning of July.

‘a week with ME …’ series is now scheduled (March, June, September, December, to be posted either end of the corresponding month or at the beginning of the following month).

a special note …

I have decided I will turn this into a new feature series. And so I don’t get confused, once this particular blog post is complete I will change the date to 31.03.2021 (it just helps me and my awful memory see a date pattern and know where I’m up to) and post it. You can then expect one on the last day of March, June, September, and December each year.

Let me know below what you think …

 fragmented.ME xXx

Last Updated on 12/05/2022 by fragmented_ME

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My birth name is Denise, but I’m know as Bella to those who love me. I have a first class honours degree in education & psychology and a strong passion to keep learning and educating others ... I have severe ME/CFS and lots of other chronic illnesses and I started this blog as an expansion to my instagram page, where I advocate for chronic illness. I am married and have two grown up boys, or should I say young men. I have three gorgeous grandchildren, one boy and two girls. And despite being chronically sick and housebound I am mostly happy. 🥰


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10 steps to practicing Radical Acceptance
according to DBT’s founder, Marsha Linehan:


1.  Observe that you are questioning or fighting reality (“it shouldn’t be this way”)

2.  Remind yourself that the unpleasant reality is just as it is and cannot be changed (“this is what happened”)

3.  Remind yourself that there are causes for the reality (“this is how things happened”)

4.  Practice accepting with your whole self (mind, body, spirit) - Use accepting self-talk, relaxation techniques, mindfulness and/or imagery

5.  List all of the behaviors you would engage in if you did accept the facts and then engage in those behaviors as if you have already accepted the facts

6.  Imagine, in your mind’s eye, believing what you do not want to accept and rehearse in your mind what you would do if you accepted what seems unacceptable

7.  Attend to body sensations as you think about what you need to accept

8.  Allow disappointment, sadness or grief to arise within you

9.  Acknowledge that life can be worth living even when there is pain

10.  Do pros and cons if you find yourself resisting practicing acceptance

Logo of ijpsych

2009 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 239–241.
doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285
PMCID: PMC2802367
PMID: 20048445

The biochemistry of belief

Address for correspondence: Dr. TS Sathyanarayana Rao, Department of Psychiatry, JSS University, JSS Medical College Hospital, M.G. Road, Mysore - 570 004, India. E-mail: moc.oohay@91oarsst
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

“Man is what he believes”

Anton Chekhov

Beliefs are basically the guiding principles in life that provide direction and meaning in life. Beliefs are the preset, organized filters to our perceptions of the world (external and internal). Beliefs are like ‘Internal commands’ to the brain as to how to represent what is happening, when we congruently believe something to be true. In the absence of beliefs or inability to tap into them, people feel disempowered.

Beliefs originate from what we hear - and keep on hearing from others, ever since we were children (and even before that!). The sources of beliefs include environment, events, knowledge, past experiences, visualization etc. One of the biggest misconceptions people often harbor is that belief is a static, intellectual concept. Nothing can be farther from truth! Beliefs are a choice. We have the power to choose our beliefs. Our beliefs become our reality.

Beliefs are not just cold mental premises, but are ‘hot stuff’ intertwined with emotions (conscious or unconscious). Perhaps, that is why we feel threatened or react with sometimes uncalled for aggression, when we believe our beliefs are being challenged! Research findings have repeatedly pointed out that the emotional brain is no longer confined to the classical locales of the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus.[1] The sensory inputs we receive from the environment undergo a filtering process as they travel across one or more synapses, ultimately reaching the area of higher processing, like the frontal lobes. There, the sensory information enters our conscious awareness. What portion of this sensory information enters is determined by our beliefs. Fortunately for us, receptors on the cell membranes are flexible, which can alter in sensitivity and conformation. In other words, even when we feel stuck ‘emotionally’, there is always a biochemical potential for change and possible growth. When we choose to change our thoughts (bursts of neurochemicals!), we become open and receptive to other pieces of sensory information hitherto blocked by our beliefs! When we change our thinking, we change our beliefs. When we change our beliefs, we change our behavior.

A mention of the ‘Placebo’ is most appropriate at this juncture. Medical history is replete with numerous reported cases where placebos were found to have a profound effect on a variety of disorders. One such astounding case was that of a woman suffering from severe nausea and vomiting. Objective measurements of her gastric contractions indicated a disrupted pattern matching the condition she complained of. Then a ‘new, magical, extremely potent’ drug was offered to her, which would, the doctors proclaimed, undoubtedly cure her nausea. Within a few minutes, her nausea vanished! The very same gastric tests now revealed normal pattern, when, in actuality, she had been given syrup of ipecac, a substance usually used to induce nausea! When the syrup was presented to her, paired with the strong suggestion of relief of nausea, by an authority figure, it acted as a (command) message to the brain that triggered a cascade of self-regulatory biochemical responses within the body.[2] This instance dramatically demonstrates that the influence of placebo could be more potent than expected drug effect.

An important observation was that, part of the placebo response seemed to involve the meaning of the disorder or the illness to the individual. In other words, the person's belief or how she/he interprets (inter-presents or internally represents) directly governs the biological response or behavior. Another remarkable study involved a schizophrenic. This woman was observed to have split personality. Under normal conditions, her blood glucose levels were normal. However, the moment she believed she was diabetic, her entire physiology changed to become that of a diabetic, including elevated blood glucose levels.[3]

Suggestions or symbolic messages shape beliefs that in turn affect our physical well being. Several cases of ‘Disappearance of warts’ have been reported by Ornstein and Sobel wherein they ponder on how the brain translates the suggestions (sometimes using hypnosis) into systematic biochemical battle strategies such as chemical messengers sent to enlist the aid of immune cells in an assault on the microbe-induced miniature tumor or probably small arteries are selectively constricted, cutting off the vital nutrient supply to warts but not touching the neighboring healthy cells.[2]

Findings of carefully designed research indicate that our interpretation of what we are seeing (experiencing) can literally alter our physiology. In fact, all symptoms of medicine work through our beliefs. By subtly transforming the unknown (disease/disorder) into something known, named, tamed and explained, alarm reactions in the brain can be calmed down. All therapies have a hidden, symbolic value and influence on the psyche, besides the direct specific effect they may have on the body.

Just as amazingly life-affirming placebos are, the reverse, “Nocebo' has been observed to be playing its part too. It is associated with negative, life-threatening or disempowering beliefs. Arthur Barsky, a psychiatrist states that it is the patient's expectations – beliefs whether a drug or procedure works or will have side effects – that plays a crucial role in the outcome.[4]

The biochemistry of our body stems from our awareness.[5] Belief-reinforced awareness becomes our biochemistry. Each and every tiny cell in our body is perfectly and absolutely aware of our thoughts, feelings and of course, our beliefs. There is a beautiful saying ‘Nobody grows old. When people stop growing, they become old’. If you believe you are fragile, the biochemistry of your body unquestionably obeys and manifests it. If you believe you are tough (irrespective of your weight and bone density!), your body undeniably mirrors it. When you believe you are depressed (more precisely, when you become consciously aware of your ‘Being depressed’), you stamp the raw data received through your sense organs, with a judgment – that is your personal view – and physically become the ‘interpretation’ as you internalize it. A classic example is ‘Psychosocial dwarfism’, wherein children who feel and believethat they are unloved, translate the perceived lack of love into depleted levels of growth hormone, in contrast to the strongly held view that growth hormone is released according to a preprogrammed schedule coded into the individual's genes!

Providing scientific evidence to support a holistic approach to well being and healthcare, Bruce Lipton sheds light on mechanism underlying healing at cellular level. He emphasizes that ‘love’ is the most healing emotion and ‘placebo’ effect accounts for a substantial percentage of any drug's action, underscoring the significance of beliefs in health and sickness. According to him, as adults, we still believe in and act our lives out based on information we absorbed as children (pathetic indeed!). And the good news is, we can do something about the ‘tape’ our subconscious mind is playing (ol' silly beliefs) and change them NOW.[6] Further recent literature evidences provided knowledge based on scientific principles of biology of belief. There are limited studies on clinics of traditional beliefs and if we get more scientific data, we can use these traditional systems in clinical mental health management. Human belief system is formed by all the experiences learned and experimented filtered through personality.[7] The senses to capture inner and outer perceptions have higher brain potentials. Some questions that arise in this context are, does the integration and acceptance of these perceptions result in the establishment of beliefs? Does the establishment of these beliefs depend on proof demonstrations? The proofs might be the perceptions, which we can directly see or having scientific proof or custom or faith.[8,9] Beliefs are developed as stimuli received as trusted information and stored in the memory. These perceptions are generalized and established into belief. These beliefs are involved in the moral judgment of the person. Beliefs help in decision-making. Bogousslavsky and Inglin explained that, how some physicians were more successful by taking an account of patient beliefs. Beliefs influence factors involved in the development of psychopathology. They also influence the cognitive and emotional assessment, addictiveness, responses to false positives and persistent normal defensive reactions. Total brain function is required in stabilizing the belief and in responding to environmental system. Some of the brain regions and the neural circuits are very important in establishing beliefs and executing emotions. Frontal lobes play a major role in beliefs. Mental representations of the world are integrated with sub-cortical information by prefrontal cortex. Amygdala and Hippocampus are involved in the process of thinking and thus help in execution of beliefs. NMDA receptor is involved in thinking and in the development of beliefs. These beliefs are subjected to challenge. A belief that is subjected to more challenges becomes stronger. When a new stimulus comes, it creates distress in the brain with already existing patterns. The distress results in the release of dopamine (neurotransmitter) to transmit the signal.[10,11] Research findings of Young and Saxe (2008) revealed that medial prefrontal cortex is involved in processing the belief valence.[12] Right temporoparietal junction and precuneus are involved in the processing of beliefs to moral judgment. True beliefs are processed through right temporoparietal junction.[13,14] Saxe (2006) explained that beliefs judging starts at the age of five years citing example of judging of belief questions on short stories by the children.[15] Belief attribution involved activating regions of medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyri and hippocampal regions. Studies by Krummenacher et al, have shown that dopamine levels are associated with paranormal thoughts suggesting the role of dopamine in belief development in the brain.[16] Flannelly et al, illustrated on how primitive brain mechanisms that evolved to assess environmental threats in related psychiatric disorders.[17] Also were highlighted the issues such as the way beliefs can affect psychiatric symptoms through these brain systems. The theories discussed widely are related to (a) link psychiatric disorders to threat assessment and (b) explain how the normal functioning of threat assessment systems can become pathological. It is proposed that three brain structures are implicated in brain disorders in response to threat assessment and self-defense: the regions are the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia and parts of limbic system. The functionality of these regions has great potential to understand mechanism of belief formation and its relevance in neurological functions/dysfunctions. Now it is clear that biology and physiology of belief is an open area for research both at basic and clinical level. The future directions are to develop validated experimental or sound theoretical interpretation to make ‘BELIEF’ as a potential clinical management tool.

Perceptual shifts are the prerequisites for changing the belief and hence changing the biochemistry of our body favorably. Our innate desire and willingness to learn and grow lead to newer perceptions. When we consciously allow newer perceptions to enter the brain by seeking new experiences, learning new skills and changed perspectives, our body can respond in newer ways –this is the true secret of youth. Beliefs (internal representations/interpretations) thus hold the magic wand of remarkable transformations in our biochemical profile. If you are chasing joy and peace all the time everywhere but exclaim exhausted, ‘Oh, it's to be found nowhere!’, why not change your interpretation of NOWHERE to ‘NOW HERE’; just by introducing a gap, you change your awareness – that changes your belief and that changes your biochemistry in an instant!

Everything exists as a ‘Matrix of pure possibilities’ akin to ‘formless’ molten wax or moldable soft clay. We shape them into anything we desire by choosing to do so, prompted, dictated (consciously or unconsciously) by our beliefs. The awareness that we are part of these ever-changing fields of energy that constantly interact with one another is what gives us the key hitherto elusive, to unlock the immense power within us. And it is our awareness of this awesome truth that changes everything. Then we transform ourselves from passive onlookers to powerful creators. Our beliefs provide the script to write or re-write the code of our reality.

Thoughts and beliefs are an integral part of the brain's operations. Neurotransmitters could be termed the ‘words’ brain uses to communicate with exchange of information occurring constantly, mediated by these molecular messengers. Unraveling the mystery of this molecular music induced by the magic of beliefs, dramatically influencing the biochemistry of brain could be an exciting adventure and a worth pursuing cerebral challenge.


1. Candace Pert. Molecules of emotion: Why you feel the way you feel. New York, USA: Scribner Publications; 2003. ISBN-10: 0684846349.
2. Ornstein R, Sobel D. The healing brain: Breakthrough discoveries about how the brain keeps us healthy. USA: Malor Books; 1999. ISBN-10: 1883536170.
3. Robbins A. Unlimited power: The new science of personal excellence. UK: Simon and Schuster; 1986. ISBN 0-7434-0939-6.
4. Braden G. The spontaneous healing of belief. Hay House Publishers (India) Pvt. Ltd; 2008. ISBN 978-81-89988-39-5.
5. Chopra D. Ageless body, timeless mind: The quantum alternative to growing old. Hormony Publishers; 1994. ISBN -10: 0517882124.
6. Lipton B. The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter and miracles. Mountain of Love Publishers; 2005. ISBN 978-0975991473.
7. Bogousslavsky J, Inglin M. Beliefs and the brain. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:129–32. [PubMed: 17622716]
8. Gundersen L. Faith and healing. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:169–72. [PubMed: 10644287]
9. Mueller PS, Plevak DJ, Rummans TA. Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:1225–35. [PubMed: 11761504]
10. Patel AD, Peretz I, Tramo M, Labreque R. Processing prosodic and musical patterns: A neuropsychological investigation. Brain Lang. 1998;61:123–44. [PubMed: 9448936]
11. Tramo MJ. Biology and music. Music of the hemispheres. Science. 2001;291:54–6. [PubMed: 11192009]
12. Young L, Saxe R. The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. Neuroimage. 2008;40:1912–20. [PubMed: 18342544]
13. Aichhorn M, Perner J, Weiss B, Kronbichler M, Staffen W, Ladurner G. Temporo-parietal junction activity in theory-of-mind tasks: Falseness, beliefs, or attention. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:1179–92. [PubMed: 18702587]
14. Abraham A, Rakoczy H, Werning M, von Cramon DY, Schubotz RI. Matching mind to world and vice versa: Functional dissociations between belief and desire mental state processing. Soc Neurosci. 2009;1:18. [PubMed: 19670085]
15. Saxe R. Why and how to study Theory of Mind with fMRI. Brain Res. 2006;1079:57–65. [PubMed: 16480695]
16. Krummenacher P, Mohr C, Haker H, Brugger P. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009 Jun 30; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed: 19642883]
17. Flannelly KJ, Koenig HG, Galek K, Ellison CG. Beliefs, mental health, and evolutionary threat assessment systems in the brain. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:996–1003. [PubMed: 18091193]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

HRPacing ...


Heart Rate Pacing is a technique used to stay within ones energy reserves. The anaerobic threshold (AT) is the heart rate at which aerobic energy surges. The threshold is often around about 60% of a ones maximum heart rate, though each person is different and an individual's threshold may vary from day to day or within a day.

(Note: Maximum heart rate is 220 minus ones age. For a 50 year old, 60% of maximum heart rate is (220 - 50) x 0.6 = 102 bpm.)


* Changes colour to indicate:

- Resting - (REST) Lavender

- Recovery (RECOVER) - Green (RHR + 10%)

- Exertion (EXERT) - Orange (RHR + 20%)

- Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - Red ((220-50)x0.6)

* Set an alert based on:

- reaching Anaerobic Threshold Zone, or

- custom set Maximum Heart Rate.

* Set the Anaerobic Threshold Tolerance from 0.6 (default) to 0.5 if desired.

* Set a custom interval between alerts (15 secs default).

* Displays 12/24 hour clock based on user settings in Fitbit profile.

cognitive deficits in patients with ME/CFS …

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... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for the introductory workshop by donating £65

you can pay for an individual care plan by donating £71

you can pay for a monthly session by donating £71

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical review by donating £121

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

you can pay for the individual assessment by donating £141

you can pay for a medical assessment by donating £187

Thank you very much !

help me fund my assessment treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for a medical assessment by donating £187

you can pay for an initial assessment by donating £141

you can pay for a medical review by donating £121

Thank you very much !

help me fund my preparation for rehabilitation treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for the introductory workshop by donating £65

you can pay for an individual care plan by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my rehabilitation treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for a monthly session by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my follow up treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

Thank you very much !

… duplicitous …

duplicitous …

summary of the 5 major diagnostic criteria from 1988 onwards …

summary of the 5 major diagnostic criteria from 1988 onwards …

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