fragmented.ME …
mind * body * soul ...

does ME define me …

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The fragmented.ME blog tag line is:

I am not defined by ME …

You will see it on the top every single page of my blog, just underneath the fragmented.ME … title. And, I can honestly say that when I wrote it I truly believed that ME did not define me.

I am not defined by ME …

But, a few years on and I am beginning to seriously question this tag line and the ideology that surrounds it, which I clearly agreed with or bought into at some point.

That said, I now find myself questioning if it falls into the category of toxic positivity, one of my pet hates.

Dr. Jaime Zuckerman, defines toxic positivity as:

the assumption, either by one’s self or others, that despite a person’s emotional pain or difficult situation, they should only have a positive mindset or — my pet peeve term — ‘positive vibes’.

 ME does not define me …

ME does define me …

Let Me Elaborate …

When your illness is not stable and every day you feel worse than the day before. Then, your illness can, and sometimes often does, begin to define you, and vice versa. Your thoughts can begin to be dominated and taken over by your illness. And the longer that state lasts the more you can feel defined by your illness.

It’s a vicious circle. You are in a catch 22 situation.

Let me repeat … It’s a vicious circle. You are in a catch 22 situation.

Catch 22:
a situation presenting two equally undesirable alternatives

you are desperately ill > you rest (because that’s all you can do being so unwell) > you are bored and so you think > you think about the illness and try to work out the whys’

you are desperately ill > you do (by triggering adrenaline because that’s the only way you can do things) > you notice you get sicker by doing > and so think and you try to work out the whys’

either way : you cannot win > using one option you might die on a mind level and using the other option you might die on a body level and using both options you are still being defined by the illness …

G R I M  . . .  But, when you are that sick, living the catch 22, surely it must means your illness is defining you.

A Part of ME or The Sum of me … 

I’ve read online that some ‘sick’ people, and so called experts, claim that illness does not define you, that it cannot define you. They say, it may be a part of you but it is not the sum of you. Adding that, you are much more than your illness and that you are you, and you matter.

a part of ME …

 or the sum of me …

These people, and so called experts, clearly do not know anything, or know very little, about a chronic illness like ME. As an illness, it can be all encompassing, affecting every single cell in your body. You feel as though you might die any minute. The illness, although long term, is not chronic in the sense that we generally understand chronic illness to be.

Having this illness is like a living death. As many ME experts have explained, with ME the patient feels as poorly as those who are in their last weeks of cancer or AIDS, who are actually dying. But with ME you are as sick as these dying cancer and AIDS patients, you just don’t die.

As a result of this, it can be extremely hard, almost impossible, to hold on to ‘you’ when all you can do is lie there and be seriously unwell day after day, month after month, year after year.

In fact all you can do is …

b r e a t h e   . . .


t h i n k   . . .

thinking …

Moreover, because of the restrictions and limitations the illness places on you, you find yourself having to let go of defining aspects of yourself, since you can no longer do them. When you do this, what you are actually doing is letting go of the ‘you’ that they are claiming you can hang on to.

In reality, what happens is that your thoughts gradually become less about ‘you’ and more about the ‘illness’.

until there is nothing left but the illness …

How Can This Happen …

You may be asking, how can this happen when the spirit to be ‘you’ is very strong and you feel doggedly determined to be everything you are capable of being?

you live inside yourself, inside your head …

As previously mentioned, towards the end in the above section. It’s gradual. It’s insipid. It creeps up on you. But goes something like this:

Well meaning friends and family will ask how you are, every single day, helping to remind you of your sickness. Anyone you see, outside your home, will be because of the illness. You will decline invitations, because of the illness. You will push to get stuff done. You will rest to get over doing stuff. You will search online and read copious research, reports, and books, about the illness. You will try every new fad that’s going about. You will try just about anything and everything. All because of the illness and in an endeavour to fix, or just work with, the illness.

In fact, all you ever seem to think, read, do, not do, and talk about, all comes back to the illness.

you are being consumed by the illness …

Detrimentally, and usually before succumbing fully, you will resort to employing your willpower to help you B E A T  this thing. You will desperately and repeatedly tell yourself that you can beat this, you can and will recover. There must be a way.

While at the same time, along with all this determination, you may well be plagued with conflicting doubts, asking yourself, am I causing this, am I making myself worse, am I letting it win, am I actually becoming my illness?

Anyhow, there’s a good chance it’s at this stage that you will finally be brought to the point where you have to seriously consider that question and its answer, which is very likely going to be YES!

am I defined by ME …
[you can exchange ME for your  own particular condition]

I Am (now) Defined by ME …

You are now at the final stage of where you find yourself becoming defined by your illness. I mean, what else is left? Yes, the core of who you once were, or believe you once were, might be flickering somewhere in the background. You might dream, or make plans, about the things this former ‘you’ could do. But you never do them. They are dreams and unfulfilled plans. Seriously, that person who you identified as is gone. They no longer exist. They have faded and been swallowed up amid the never ending symptoms and days and nights of nothingness. Lost in the, I can’ts’, cancelled dates, and the ever mounting unfulfilled plans …

of course …

I am [now] defined by ME …

Living Inside Yourself …

It is at this point that you start to fully live inside yourself. By this, I mean that you start to live inwardly, inside your head. And if you live inside yourself, which is, because of the illness, simply ‘sickness’, then of course you’ll ultimately become it.

There will be a never ending internal dialogue going on. Something akin to this:

Am I really sick?

Maybe I’m just lazy?

Is it all just in my head?

Why are all my tests relatively normal, yet I feel so shit?

Should I push [now / today / tomorrow]?

Should I stop [now / today / tomorrow]?

Can I be honest about how sick I feel?

Blah blah blah blah f**king blah

A M   I   E N O U G H ?

E N O U G H   I S   E N O U G H !

And there will be nothing happening externally to combat the reality you are now living. All you will have are your thoughts. Because, as sad as it is, all you have left is inside you.

What Now …

You have to learn to just be with yourself and your symptoms …

Soul Growth …

You cannot go on thinking all the time and living inside your head, it will send you crazy.

Eventually, it has to stop.

You have to stop.

You have to find the quiet amid the noise.

You simply have to learn to ‘be’ and ‘accept’.

it is what it is …

Yes, you have to learn to simply be and accept the fact that, it is what it is.

being …

When you can ‘be’ with your illness and all its symptoms, then a kind of peace ensues. A peace that overshadows the busyness of the thinking and the planning.

A peace that leads to acceptance on a very personal level. An acceptance of how sick you are and that you might no longer be who you were, or thought you were.

You no longer need to join in and live your life the way you used to do. Or the way you think others expect.

It can overshadow the not enough turning it into you are enough.

b e . . .

i n . . .

s t i l l n e s s . . .

accepting …

Accepting, it is what it is, is key to moving forward in this regard of being. If you can accept then you can be. I have written about acceptance in my blog ‘how to accept the unacceptable …’, which documents some of the techniques I use when I’m struggling with acceptance. These techniques have helped me to get to this point where I can, for the most part, accept that I am no longer the person I was and also accept that for now for this is perfectly OK and it is understandable too that I will at times feel disgruntled by it all. I can mostly accept it all, whatever it throws at me.

a c c e p t . . .

i n . . .

k i n d n e s s . . .

Full Circle …

We can call this, being defined by ME, if you will, I often do and right now I definitely feel defined by it …

That said, I am still going to leave my tag line as it is just in case I begin to get more time for the inner ‘me’ and less time spent on ‘ME’ … and I no longer feel as defined by ME as I do right now.

At the same time, I also like to think of it as simply,

a c c e p t i n g   t h e   u n a c c e p t a b l e   . . .

In Summary & In Conclusion …

The idea of ‘being defined by your illness’ is very personal and for some, even if they have severe ME, it may not mean they can accept, or even feel, they are defined by it.

Whereas, in my case, when I feel consumed by my symptoms then I will undoubtedly feel and be defined by them too. Likewise, I cannot be extremely sick every single day and not be consumed by what is happening to me. They are somehow intrinsically linked.

Thus, sometimes,

I am defined by ME …

Then, other times,

I am not defined by ME …

All things considered, if you are the same, then ways of being with the illness will be needed in order for you to simply ‘be’ with things as they are, especially when the going gets tough.

I personally need something that will allow me to have peace and acceptance, so that I am not taken over by all the thinking that happens when I am unable to do stuff.

In my experience, I have found that things happen by way of circular type of sequences. Whereby, I ignore the illness, carrying on as though I can do, followed by being more extra ill, then recovering somewhat, only to resort to doing it all over again, until I can no longer carry on that way. Leading me to the way that I need to be in order to accept things as they are.

Consequently, when faced with severe sickness you will go through some of the stages discussed above, and many others too, to get you to this point of peaceful acceptance. I do not believe that attitudes such as peace and acceptance are naturally within us all, yet when faced with serious illness we all seem to intuitively find our way there. As if it’s a necessary part of the journey.

Nevertheless, I do believe you will ultimately arrive at your destination ready to accept whatever you found through your journey. This is more than likely going to include some thoughts and feeling about whether you feel it is ok for you to be defined by your illness.

I will boldly say here that, it is ok to accept whatever you find.
It truly is what it is. 
It’s ok, if the illness has taken over everything and feel defined by it.
And it’s okay if it hasn’t, and you feel that it is only a part of you. 
Either way, you matter …

it is all okay …

it is what it is …

If the article has helped you in any way or you have anything you’d like to add, please feel free to contact me to share your thoughts or any questions you may have.

A Personal Concluding Note …

This piece has been incredibly difficult for me to write. I struggled to make it make sense and I think that’s because even now it doesn’t really make sense to me; to be defined by your illness and to accept it as such is incredibly emotive and feels contradictory. Yet, it is equally as necessary to end the struggle and to gain peace of mind. And I think I am still grappling with this idea …

 fragmented.ME xXx

Last Updated on 12/05/2022 by fragmented_ME

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My birth name is Denise, but I’m know as Bella to those who love me. I have a first class honours degree in education & psychology and a strong passion to keep learning and educating others ... I have severe ME/CFS and lots of other chronic illnesses and I started this blog as an expansion to my instagram page, where I advocate for chronic illness. I am married and have two grown up boys, or should I say young men. I have three gorgeous grandchildren, one boy and two girls. And despite being chronically sick and housebound I am mostly happy. 🥰

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10 steps to practicing Radical Acceptance
according to DBT’s founder, Marsha Linehan:


1.  Observe that you are questioning or fighting reality (“it shouldn’t be this way”)

2.  Remind yourself that the unpleasant reality is just as it is and cannot be changed (“this is what happened”)

3.  Remind yourself that there are causes for the reality (“this is how things happened”)

4.  Practice accepting with your whole self (mind, body, spirit) - Use accepting self-talk, relaxation techniques, mindfulness and/or imagery

5.  List all of the behaviors you would engage in if you did accept the facts and then engage in those behaviors as if you have already accepted the facts

6.  Imagine, in your mind’s eye, believing what you do not want to accept and rehearse in your mind what you would do if you accepted what seems unacceptable

7.  Attend to body sensations as you think about what you need to accept

8.  Allow disappointment, sadness or grief to arise within you

9.  Acknowledge that life can be worth living even when there is pain

10.  Do pros and cons if you find yourself resisting practicing acceptance

Logo of ijpsych

2009 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 239–241.
doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285
PMCID: PMC2802367
PMID: 20048445

The biochemistry of belief

Address for correspondence: Dr. TS Sathyanarayana Rao, Department of Psychiatry, JSS University, JSS Medical College Hospital, M.G. Road, Mysore - 570 004, India. E-mail: moc.oohay@91oarsst
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

“Man is what he believes”

Anton Chekhov

Beliefs are basically the guiding principles in life that provide direction and meaning in life. Beliefs are the preset, organized filters to our perceptions of the world (external and internal). Beliefs are like ‘Internal commands’ to the brain as to how to represent what is happening, when we congruently believe something to be true. In the absence of beliefs or inability to tap into them, people feel disempowered.

Beliefs originate from what we hear - and keep on hearing from others, ever since we were children (and even before that!). The sources of beliefs include environment, events, knowledge, past experiences, visualization etc. One of the biggest misconceptions people often harbor is that belief is a static, intellectual concept. Nothing can be farther from truth! Beliefs are a choice. We have the power to choose our beliefs. Our beliefs become our reality.

Beliefs are not just cold mental premises, but are ‘hot stuff’ intertwined with emotions (conscious or unconscious). Perhaps, that is why we feel threatened or react with sometimes uncalled for aggression, when we believe our beliefs are being challenged! Research findings have repeatedly pointed out that the emotional brain is no longer confined to the classical locales of the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus.[1] The sensory inputs we receive from the environment undergo a filtering process as they travel across one or more synapses, ultimately reaching the area of higher processing, like the frontal lobes. There, the sensory information enters our conscious awareness. What portion of this sensory information enters is determined by our beliefs. Fortunately for us, receptors on the cell membranes are flexible, which can alter in sensitivity and conformation. In other words, even when we feel stuck ‘emotionally’, there is always a biochemical potential for change and possible growth. When we choose to change our thoughts (bursts of neurochemicals!), we become open and receptive to other pieces of sensory information hitherto blocked by our beliefs! When we change our thinking, we change our beliefs. When we change our beliefs, we change our behavior.

A mention of the ‘Placebo’ is most appropriate at this juncture. Medical history is replete with numerous reported cases where placebos were found to have a profound effect on a variety of disorders. One such astounding case was that of a woman suffering from severe nausea and vomiting. Objective measurements of her gastric contractions indicated a disrupted pattern matching the condition she complained of. Then a ‘new, magical, extremely potent’ drug was offered to her, which would, the doctors proclaimed, undoubtedly cure her nausea. Within a few minutes, her nausea vanished! The very same gastric tests now revealed normal pattern, when, in actuality, she had been given syrup of ipecac, a substance usually used to induce nausea! When the syrup was presented to her, paired with the strong suggestion of relief of nausea, by an authority figure, it acted as a (command) message to the brain that triggered a cascade of self-regulatory biochemical responses within the body.[2] This instance dramatically demonstrates that the influence of placebo could be more potent than expected drug effect.

An important observation was that, part of the placebo response seemed to involve the meaning of the disorder or the illness to the individual. In other words, the person's belief or how she/he interprets (inter-presents or internally represents) directly governs the biological response or behavior. Another remarkable study involved a schizophrenic. This woman was observed to have split personality. Under normal conditions, her blood glucose levels were normal. However, the moment she believed she was diabetic, her entire physiology changed to become that of a diabetic, including elevated blood glucose levels.[3]

Suggestions or symbolic messages shape beliefs that in turn affect our physical well being. Several cases of ‘Disappearance of warts’ have been reported by Ornstein and Sobel wherein they ponder on how the brain translates the suggestions (sometimes using hypnosis) into systematic biochemical battle strategies such as chemical messengers sent to enlist the aid of immune cells in an assault on the microbe-induced miniature tumor or probably small arteries are selectively constricted, cutting off the vital nutrient supply to warts but not touching the neighboring healthy cells.[2]

Findings of carefully designed research indicate that our interpretation of what we are seeing (experiencing) can literally alter our physiology. In fact, all symptoms of medicine work through our beliefs. By subtly transforming the unknown (disease/disorder) into something known, named, tamed and explained, alarm reactions in the brain can be calmed down. All therapies have a hidden, symbolic value and influence on the psyche, besides the direct specific effect they may have on the body.

Just as amazingly life-affirming placebos are, the reverse, “Nocebo' has been observed to be playing its part too. It is associated with negative, life-threatening or disempowering beliefs. Arthur Barsky, a psychiatrist states that it is the patient's expectations – beliefs whether a drug or procedure works or will have side effects – that plays a crucial role in the outcome.[4]

The biochemistry of our body stems from our awareness.[5] Belief-reinforced awareness becomes our biochemistry. Each and every tiny cell in our body is perfectly and absolutely aware of our thoughts, feelings and of course, our beliefs. There is a beautiful saying ‘Nobody grows old. When people stop growing, they become old’. If you believe you are fragile, the biochemistry of your body unquestionably obeys and manifests it. If you believe you are tough (irrespective of your weight and bone density!), your body undeniably mirrors it. When you believe you are depressed (more precisely, when you become consciously aware of your ‘Being depressed’), you stamp the raw data received through your sense organs, with a judgment – that is your personal view – and physically become the ‘interpretation’ as you internalize it. A classic example is ‘Psychosocial dwarfism’, wherein children who feel and believethat they are unloved, translate the perceived lack of love into depleted levels of growth hormone, in contrast to the strongly held view that growth hormone is released according to a preprogrammed schedule coded into the individual's genes!

Providing scientific evidence to support a holistic approach to well being and healthcare, Bruce Lipton sheds light on mechanism underlying healing at cellular level. He emphasizes that ‘love’ is the most healing emotion and ‘placebo’ effect accounts for a substantial percentage of any drug's action, underscoring the significance of beliefs in health and sickness. According to him, as adults, we still believe in and act our lives out based on information we absorbed as children (pathetic indeed!). And the good news is, we can do something about the ‘tape’ our subconscious mind is playing (ol' silly beliefs) and change them NOW.[6] Further recent literature evidences provided knowledge based on scientific principles of biology of belief. There are limited studies on clinics of traditional beliefs and if we get more scientific data, we can use these traditional systems in clinical mental health management. Human belief system is formed by all the experiences learned and experimented filtered through personality.[7] The senses to capture inner and outer perceptions have higher brain potentials. Some questions that arise in this context are, does the integration and acceptance of these perceptions result in the establishment of beliefs? Does the establishment of these beliefs depend on proof demonstrations? The proofs might be the perceptions, which we can directly see or having scientific proof or custom or faith.[8,9] Beliefs are developed as stimuli received as trusted information and stored in the memory. These perceptions are generalized and established into belief. These beliefs are involved in the moral judgment of the person. Beliefs help in decision-making. Bogousslavsky and Inglin explained that, how some physicians were more successful by taking an account of patient beliefs. Beliefs influence factors involved in the development of psychopathology. They also influence the cognitive and emotional assessment, addictiveness, responses to false positives and persistent normal defensive reactions. Total brain function is required in stabilizing the belief and in responding to environmental system. Some of the brain regions and the neural circuits are very important in establishing beliefs and executing emotions. Frontal lobes play a major role in beliefs. Mental representations of the world are integrated with sub-cortical information by prefrontal cortex. Amygdala and Hippocampus are involved in the process of thinking and thus help in execution of beliefs. NMDA receptor is involved in thinking and in the development of beliefs. These beliefs are subjected to challenge. A belief that is subjected to more challenges becomes stronger. When a new stimulus comes, it creates distress in the brain with already existing patterns. The distress results in the release of dopamine (neurotransmitter) to transmit the signal.[10,11] Research findings of Young and Saxe (2008) revealed that medial prefrontal cortex is involved in processing the belief valence.[12] Right temporoparietal junction and precuneus are involved in the processing of beliefs to moral judgment. True beliefs are processed through right temporoparietal junction.[13,14] Saxe (2006) explained that beliefs judging starts at the age of five years citing example of judging of belief questions on short stories by the children.[15] Belief attribution involved activating regions of medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyri and hippocampal regions. Studies by Krummenacher et al, have shown that dopamine levels are associated with paranormal thoughts suggesting the role of dopamine in belief development in the brain.[16] Flannelly et al, illustrated on how primitive brain mechanisms that evolved to assess environmental threats in related psychiatric disorders.[17] Also were highlighted the issues such as the way beliefs can affect psychiatric symptoms through these brain systems. The theories discussed widely are related to (a) link psychiatric disorders to threat assessment and (b) explain how the normal functioning of threat assessment systems can become pathological. It is proposed that three brain structures are implicated in brain disorders in response to threat assessment and self-defense: the regions are the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia and parts of limbic system. The functionality of these regions has great potential to understand mechanism of belief formation and its relevance in neurological functions/dysfunctions. Now it is clear that biology and physiology of belief is an open area for research both at basic and clinical level. The future directions are to develop validated experimental or sound theoretical interpretation to make ‘BELIEF’ as a potential clinical management tool.

Perceptual shifts are the prerequisites for changing the belief and hence changing the biochemistry of our body favorably. Our innate desire and willingness to learn and grow lead to newer perceptions. When we consciously allow newer perceptions to enter the brain by seeking new experiences, learning new skills and changed perspectives, our body can respond in newer ways –this is the true secret of youth. Beliefs (internal representations/interpretations) thus hold the magic wand of remarkable transformations in our biochemical profile. If you are chasing joy and peace all the time everywhere but exclaim exhausted, ‘Oh, it's to be found nowhere!’, why not change your interpretation of NOWHERE to ‘NOW HERE’; just by introducing a gap, you change your awareness – that changes your belief and that changes your biochemistry in an instant!

Everything exists as a ‘Matrix of pure possibilities’ akin to ‘formless’ molten wax or moldable soft clay. We shape them into anything we desire by choosing to do so, prompted, dictated (consciously or unconsciously) by our beliefs. The awareness that we are part of these ever-changing fields of energy that constantly interact with one another is what gives us the key hitherto elusive, to unlock the immense power within us. And it is our awareness of this awesome truth that changes everything. Then we transform ourselves from passive onlookers to powerful creators. Our beliefs provide the script to write or re-write the code of our reality.

Thoughts and beliefs are an integral part of the brain's operations. Neurotransmitters could be termed the ‘words’ brain uses to communicate with exchange of information occurring constantly, mediated by these molecular messengers. Unraveling the mystery of this molecular music induced by the magic of beliefs, dramatically influencing the biochemistry of brain could be an exciting adventure and a worth pursuing cerebral challenge.


1. Candace Pert. Molecules of emotion: Why you feel the way you feel. New York, USA: Scribner Publications; 2003. ISBN-10: 0684846349.
2. Ornstein R, Sobel D. The healing brain: Breakthrough discoveries about how the brain keeps us healthy. USA: Malor Books; 1999. ISBN-10: 1883536170.
3. Robbins A. Unlimited power: The new science of personal excellence. UK: Simon and Schuster; 1986. ISBN 0-7434-0939-6.
4. Braden G. The spontaneous healing of belief. Hay House Publishers (India) Pvt. Ltd; 2008. ISBN 978-81-89988-39-5.
5. Chopra D. Ageless body, timeless mind: The quantum alternative to growing old. Hormony Publishers; 1994. ISBN -10: 0517882124.
6. Lipton B. The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter and miracles. Mountain of Love Publishers; 2005. ISBN 978-0975991473.
7. Bogousslavsky J, Inglin M. Beliefs and the brain. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:129–32. [PubMed: 17622716]
8. Gundersen L. Faith and healing. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:169–72. [PubMed: 10644287]
9. Mueller PS, Plevak DJ, Rummans TA. Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:1225–35. [PubMed: 11761504]
10. Patel AD, Peretz I, Tramo M, Labreque R. Processing prosodic and musical patterns: A neuropsychological investigation. Brain Lang. 1998;61:123–44. [PubMed: 9448936]
11. Tramo MJ. Biology and music. Music of the hemispheres. Science. 2001;291:54–6. [PubMed: 11192009]
12. Young L, Saxe R. The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. Neuroimage. 2008;40:1912–20. [PubMed: 18342544]
13. Aichhorn M, Perner J, Weiss B, Kronbichler M, Staffen W, Ladurner G. Temporo-parietal junction activity in theory-of-mind tasks: Falseness, beliefs, or attention. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:1179–92. [PubMed: 18702587]
14. Abraham A, Rakoczy H, Werning M, von Cramon DY, Schubotz RI. Matching mind to world and vice versa: Functional dissociations between belief and desire mental state processing. Soc Neurosci. 2009;1:18. [PubMed: 19670085]
15. Saxe R. Why and how to study Theory of Mind with fMRI. Brain Res. 2006;1079:57–65. [PubMed: 16480695]
16. Krummenacher P, Mohr C, Haker H, Brugger P. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009 Jun 30; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed: 19642883]
17. Flannelly KJ, Koenig HG, Galek K, Ellison CG. Beliefs, mental health, and evolutionary threat assessment systems in the brain. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:996–1003. [PubMed: 18091193]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

HRPacing ...


Heart Rate Pacing is a technique used to stay within ones energy reserves. The anaerobic threshold (AT) is the heart rate at which aerobic energy surges. The threshold is often around about 60% of a ones maximum heart rate, though each person is different and an individual's threshold may vary from day to day or within a day.

(Note: Maximum heart rate is 220 minus ones age. For a 50 year old, 60% of maximum heart rate is (220 - 50) x 0.6 = 102 bpm.)


* Changes colour to indicate:

- Resting - (REST) Lavender

- Recovery (RECOVER) - Green (RHR + 10%)

- Exertion (EXERT) - Orange (RHR + 20%)

- Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - Red ((220-50)x0.6)

* Set an alert based on:

- reaching Anaerobic Threshold Zone, or

- custom set Maximum Heart Rate.

* Set the Anaerobic Threshold Tolerance from 0.6 (default) to 0.5 if desired.

* Set a custom interval between alerts (15 secs default).

* Displays 12/24 hour clock based on user settings in Fitbit profile.

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... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

Thank you very much !

… duplicitous …

duplicitous …

summary of the 5 major diagnostic criteria from 1988 onwards …

summary of the 5 major diagnostic criteria from 1988 onwards …

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