fragmented.ME …
the notes …,  uncovering ME …

uncovering ME : roadblocks …

Reading time: 10 Minutes

I have started a 52 week course with Daily OM called A Year of Writing to Uncover the Authentic Self and I hope you will join me by reading the posts that are born from this course.

They can be found under the mind * body * soul category as a subcategory entitled ‘uncovering ME …’.

I have wanted to write my own story for such a long time and I have never done it. The reason for this I am sure will be discovered and discussed through the 52 posts to follow.

So please join me …

. . . uncovering ME . . .
. . .  roadblocks  . . .

introduction …

I will be using this space to free write and post my unedited thoughts, words, and scribbles. So, I am sure there may be errors that appear in the text. I do not need you to tell me about these errors as this will all be part of the process and I hope you can look past this.

roadblocks …

The aim for this week’s essay is to explore what obstacles are standing in your way (past, future, and present). Maybe they are obstacles in the way of getting started with this course, or larger obstacles stopping you from reaching the heights you dream of for yourself. Let’s mine those experiences for insights and stories.

Questions/Prompts to Guide Your Writing:

what is standing in your way right now 

Of course health is the biggest block for me right now. I never know how I will feel from one minute to the next and so to commit to writing a complete book feels extremely overwhelming.

I have no confidence in my writing skills and in my ability to organise a book.

Finally, I feel that I have to get it just right from the get go and so I never make a start because it can never be just right from the start or even at the end I expect. I am sure I would always be tweaking and finding better ways of saying, writing stuff. It really has to be an organic process, and with such a fragmented life I cannot imagine what the end result would be like.

what would happen if you overcame the obstacle …

If I could overcome the illness it would be a miracle. But I would like to share with you my mind today. Today I went down the rabbit hole regarding lockdown being delayed by four weeks and imagining how I might react or what I might do if someone were to tell me that in four weeks time I would be well. I would be free of this horrible illness and all its constraints. This rabbit hole and my excitement and eagerness for this to be true made me well aware of how much being so poorly every day impacts my ability to make a start on things. How can I accept that it maybe months in between each session of writing and so to hold that writing flow is impossible.

My confidence is also impacted by the illness and how fragmented it makes my life and my ability to do.

Finally, the aspect of wanting perfection in my work is also linked to the bloody illness too. Because, if I get it right the first time then I don’t have to do it again and I don’t have to remember where I was up to if I realise I’ve got it wrong a few days afterwards.

more importantly, what would happen if you didn’t (think …) …

I am afraid when it comes to illness, it really doesn’t matter how you think. I believe you are almost always going to be disappointed.

There are days when I go to bed and I am 100% sure I will wake with a migraine, but I don’t.

And then other days I go to bed feeling okay, not even thinking about migraine, and wham I wake up with the worst migraine ever.

And so it really isn’t that predictable or reliable for me to be able to say what if I didn’t think blah blah blah … because my thoughts don’t impact my experience as much as I wish they did!

The only thing I can say is, what if I didn’t expect perfection and what if I accepted that I might only write once a month. Because in reality, writing is writing and when you add ’once a month’ together that would be 12 times a year.

Additionally, what if I said to myself you don’t need to have a plan or a pattern you can just write just simply write and let it all out because that’s what I do on my website and I find that quite acceptable. No flow needed really, just pick a subject and write and if you don’t finish it and forget your flow just read it and find your new flow.

can you reframe the most pressing current obstacle as simply a to-do list …

I’m not really sure how to reframe illness, especially as a to do list, except if this was a normal illness what I could say is I will write when I am well and I won’t write when I am poorly. However, ME isn’t like that or should I say at the level of severe it isn’t like that there are no good days just better days.

I’m not really sure how to refrain illness except if this was a normal illness what I could say is I will write when I am well and I won’t write when I am poorly. However, ME isn’t like that or should I say at the level of severe it isn’t like that, there are no good days just better days.

And so turning them into a to do list, I really don’t think that would work … I actually don’t know how to …

in other words, in order to overcome this, what do you need to learn …

I think the answer to this is that possibly I need to learn, and accept, that I am severely poorly and that anything I do is an achievement. I could also acknowledge and accept that my life is that fragmented right now, due to the severity of the illness, that possibly writing a book isn’t actually the right thing for now. And maybe I need to reframe the fact that I can write on my website as being enough, for now.

what tasks do you need to perform …

I don’t really understand this question. I’m not quite sure what it’s asking me. Is it maybe the tasks I need to do in order to achieve the goal of a book or writings? I guess it is …

If so, I think I’ve got it quite okay and I just need to carry on as I am. Writing my blog posts as I do because it works for me, to continue to let it all spill out and maybe forget, or shelve, the idea of writing a book. Just for now.

who do you need to convince …

Myself …

have you ever used an “obstacle” as an excuse not to get started …

Simple answer … NO NEVER!

I can always get started I just cannot continue. My health is so unpredictable that everything is fragmented.

Right now I have five books on the go. All started with the same excitement and vigour. However, they all come to an abrupt stop.

Probably a migraine stop … or even a severe ME relapse …

And then I cannot find the flow again and instead of trying to pick up the flow because it all feels fragmented, instead I start a new idea, a new book title.

did you regret it …

I do regret not being able to continue things. However, I am very strong and determined and so getting started isn’t a problem it’s being consistent that is the problem.

are obstacles really just fears holding you back …

Absolutely not!

My obstacles are nothing to do with fears. My obstacles are genuine severe illness and an inability to work through and function when I feel that poorly.

what is the longest-running obstacle in your life …

Clearly, illness …

what steps have you used to make progress toward overcoming it …

Well, I’ve spent the last 30 years trying to work with illness, pushing through, carrying on, not pushing through, giving up, and I’m afraid none of them work. I really just have to listen to my body and do what I can, when I can.

I have to work with the illness …

I actually think, as I analyse this now, for me to actually want to write a book when I am this poorly every single day may be beyond me.

Yes, fragmented.ME, even if blah blah blah could do it, it doesn’t mean that I can.

how far have you come with it …

I think today I’ve made huge leaps. I don’t think it’s the right time to be writing a book.

But, my blog can continue and the writing style may hopefully improve due to taking this course.

what do you wish would happen …

I wish that a test, treatments, and a cure, for my illness would come about, so that I could get on and live my life. I feel like I don’t have much time left and so this now is becoming more urgent.

how would that be possible …

More money for good quality research …

what is the biggest obstacle you faced in your past …

ME/CFS, fibromyalgia, migraine, pain.

Phobias and OCD.

The breakup of my first real love relationship.

did you overcome it … 

The illnesses, NO!

The phobias, OCD, and heartbreak … YES! … all of them …

if so, how …

I had psychological help for the phobias and OCD and eventually I learned skills to cope and get through them.

The heartbreak, it’s just life … and now I am married to a wonderful man who really is my forever love.

if not, why …

This is illness is something else … it really is … you really have to ‘know’ it to know what I mean with these words.

… without health, life is not life; …
… it is only a state of languor …
… and suffering-an image of death …
… François Rabelais …

in summary & in conclusion …

Work with what you have got …

The Essay : roadblocks …

All my life I’ve been determined.

As a young child, determined to stay up late and not miss out on anything.

As a teenager, determined to not be like my mother, determined to get away from her, as far away as possible. And I did.

As soon as possible I left England, for France, and although it wasn’t a bed of roses it was the best thing and the best time of my life. However, it ended in tragedy with my very young and innocent seventeen year old self being raped by someone who was meant to help me (this is another story to tell).

Having this happen to me kind of stopped me in my tracks and meant that I was very soon back in the UK, as alone as I had always been, as alone as if I was still in France far far away from my family, especially my mother. The mother I really now needed.

Along with the incident taking my innocence, the incident together with my return to England eroded my trust, dampened my fire and impacted my soul from that point on.

I would say that although having the relationship I had with my mother could have been one of my roadblocks, it wasn’t. Yet this was. This was my first roadblock that forever changed me. Making me work with myself to deal with it as best I could.

Back in England, unbeknown to myself at the time, I set out on a course of self destruction. I was a damaged young girl looking for her people and her place. The roadblock had set in motion a way of being that would continue throughout my life; an acceptance of poor treatment and an avoidance of reality.

As I write this I have to ponder. Can such a damaged way of being attract healthy and good. I think not and so to cut a long story, of six years, short I became pregnant and for my own and my baby’s safety I chose to be a single parent.

With experience, hindsight and insight, I now realise that all I had done was escape one abusive relationship, to a single incident of abuse, to another abuser.

Becoming, or choosing to be, a single parent was the beginning of uncovering me. Finding who I really was. Working out my strengths and weaknesses. It was the most difficult, yet most enlightening, journey so far and it lasted ten years. Me and my boy_1 worked with and through it. I was becoming determined again, a determined enlightened young woman who was finally finding herself and working all the roadblocks that came our way.

Until I met someone and started another chapter of negotiations as we, my now husband, endeavoured to blend two families (this too has to be another story).

I guess this is where I learned the most about roadblocks and how I could move through them, over them, or even around them, but nothing would stop me.

And then about five years ago, when in my early 50s, the illness I had suffered with and worked around since aged 24, became severe again and has stayed severe since. It had been severe once before for about 18 months, but that time I did eventually return back to moderate. However, this present relapse into severe looks like it’s here to stay, for now anyway.

I keep saying that, for now, don’t I? I guess still have hope that this roadblock will remove itself or that I will somehow manage to tackle my way through, over, or around, it.

This is the illness that is the roadblock I feel that I simply cannot find my way to go through, go over, or go round. No matter how much determination, money, effort or love I throw at it, I simply cannot overcome it.

This roadblock feels like it’s here to stay …

I guess it might be and now I have to work out how to negotiate it. I think now is the time to tackle this roadblock … and I guess in some small way I have already started. I made a start the day I decided to reopen my blog and to advocate and journal about this awful awful illness, the roadblock of all roadblocks … and I have continued by keeping the blog going and now starting the writing course despite getting sicker by the day.

… the end …

Please feel free to contact me to share your outcomes or with any questions you may have.

 fragmented.ME xXx

Last Updated on 12/05/2022 by fragmented_ME

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My birth name is Denise, but I’m know as Bella to those who love me. I have a first class honours degree in education & psychology and a strong passion to keep learning and educating others ... I have severe ME/CFS and lots of other chronic illnesses and I started this blog as an expansion to my instagram page, where I advocate for chronic illness. I am married and have two grown up boys, or should I say young men. I have three gorgeous grandchildren, one boy and two girls. And despite being chronically sick and housebound I am mostly happy. 🥰

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10 steps to practicing Radical Acceptance
according to DBT’s founder, Marsha Linehan:


1.  Observe that you are questioning or fighting reality (“it shouldn’t be this way”)

2.  Remind yourself that the unpleasant reality is just as it is and cannot be changed (“this is what happened”)

3.  Remind yourself that there are causes for the reality (“this is how things happened”)

4.  Practice accepting with your whole self (mind, body, spirit) - Use accepting self-talk, relaxation techniques, mindfulness and/or imagery

5.  List all of the behaviors you would engage in if you did accept the facts and then engage in those behaviors as if you have already accepted the facts

6.  Imagine, in your mind’s eye, believing what you do not want to accept and rehearse in your mind what you would do if you accepted what seems unacceptable

7.  Attend to body sensations as you think about what you need to accept

8.  Allow disappointment, sadness or grief to arise within you

9.  Acknowledge that life can be worth living even when there is pain

10.  Do pros and cons if you find yourself resisting practicing acceptance

Logo of ijpsych

2009 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 239–241.
doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285
PMCID: PMC2802367
PMID: 20048445

The biochemistry of belief

Address for correspondence: Dr. TS Sathyanarayana Rao, Department of Psychiatry, JSS University, JSS Medical College Hospital, M.G. Road, Mysore - 570 004, India. E-mail: moc.oohay@91oarsst
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

“Man is what he believes”

Anton Chekhov

Beliefs are basically the guiding principles in life that provide direction and meaning in life. Beliefs are the preset, organized filters to our perceptions of the world (external and internal). Beliefs are like ‘Internal commands’ to the brain as to how to represent what is happening, when we congruently believe something to be true. In the absence of beliefs or inability to tap into them, people feel disempowered.

Beliefs originate from what we hear - and keep on hearing from others, ever since we were children (and even before that!). The sources of beliefs include environment, events, knowledge, past experiences, visualization etc. One of the biggest misconceptions people often harbor is that belief is a static, intellectual concept. Nothing can be farther from truth! Beliefs are a choice. We have the power to choose our beliefs. Our beliefs become our reality.

Beliefs are not just cold mental premises, but are ‘hot stuff’ intertwined with emotions (conscious or unconscious). Perhaps, that is why we feel threatened or react with sometimes uncalled for aggression, when we believe our beliefs are being challenged! Research findings have repeatedly pointed out that the emotional brain is no longer confined to the classical locales of the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus.[1] The sensory inputs we receive from the environment undergo a filtering process as they travel across one or more synapses, ultimately reaching the area of higher processing, like the frontal lobes. There, the sensory information enters our conscious awareness. What portion of this sensory information enters is determined by our beliefs. Fortunately for us, receptors on the cell membranes are flexible, which can alter in sensitivity and conformation. In other words, even when we feel stuck ‘emotionally’, there is always a biochemical potential for change and possible growth. When we choose to change our thoughts (bursts of neurochemicals!), we become open and receptive to other pieces of sensory information hitherto blocked by our beliefs! When we change our thinking, we change our beliefs. When we change our beliefs, we change our behavior.

A mention of the ‘Placebo’ is most appropriate at this juncture. Medical history is replete with numerous reported cases where placebos were found to have a profound effect on a variety of disorders. One such astounding case was that of a woman suffering from severe nausea and vomiting. Objective measurements of her gastric contractions indicated a disrupted pattern matching the condition she complained of. Then a ‘new, magical, extremely potent’ drug was offered to her, which would, the doctors proclaimed, undoubtedly cure her nausea. Within a few minutes, her nausea vanished! The very same gastric tests now revealed normal pattern, when, in actuality, she had been given syrup of ipecac, a substance usually used to induce nausea! When the syrup was presented to her, paired with the strong suggestion of relief of nausea, by an authority figure, it acted as a (command) message to the brain that triggered a cascade of self-regulatory biochemical responses within the body.[2] This instance dramatically demonstrates that the influence of placebo could be more potent than expected drug effect.

An important observation was that, part of the placebo response seemed to involve the meaning of the disorder or the illness to the individual. In other words, the person's belief or how she/he interprets (inter-presents or internally represents) directly governs the biological response or behavior. Another remarkable study involved a schizophrenic. This woman was observed to have split personality. Under normal conditions, her blood glucose levels were normal. However, the moment she believed she was diabetic, her entire physiology changed to become that of a diabetic, including elevated blood glucose levels.[3]

Suggestions or symbolic messages shape beliefs that in turn affect our physical well being. Several cases of ‘Disappearance of warts’ have been reported by Ornstein and Sobel wherein they ponder on how the brain translates the suggestions (sometimes using hypnosis) into systematic biochemical battle strategies such as chemical messengers sent to enlist the aid of immune cells in an assault on the microbe-induced miniature tumor or probably small arteries are selectively constricted, cutting off the vital nutrient supply to warts but not touching the neighboring healthy cells.[2]

Findings of carefully designed research indicate that our interpretation of what we are seeing (experiencing) can literally alter our physiology. In fact, all symptoms of medicine work through our beliefs. By subtly transforming the unknown (disease/disorder) into something known, named, tamed and explained, alarm reactions in the brain can be calmed down. All therapies have a hidden, symbolic value and influence on the psyche, besides the direct specific effect they may have on the body.

Just as amazingly life-affirming placebos are, the reverse, “Nocebo' has been observed to be playing its part too. It is associated with negative, life-threatening or disempowering beliefs. Arthur Barsky, a psychiatrist states that it is the patient's expectations – beliefs whether a drug or procedure works or will have side effects – that plays a crucial role in the outcome.[4]

The biochemistry of our body stems from our awareness.[5] Belief-reinforced awareness becomes our biochemistry. Each and every tiny cell in our body is perfectly and absolutely aware of our thoughts, feelings and of course, our beliefs. There is a beautiful saying ‘Nobody grows old. When people stop growing, they become old’. If you believe you are fragile, the biochemistry of your body unquestionably obeys and manifests it. If you believe you are tough (irrespective of your weight and bone density!), your body undeniably mirrors it. When you believe you are depressed (more precisely, when you become consciously aware of your ‘Being depressed’), you stamp the raw data received through your sense organs, with a judgment – that is your personal view – and physically become the ‘interpretation’ as you internalize it. A classic example is ‘Psychosocial dwarfism’, wherein children who feel and believethat they are unloved, translate the perceived lack of love into depleted levels of growth hormone, in contrast to the strongly held view that growth hormone is released according to a preprogrammed schedule coded into the individual's genes!

Providing scientific evidence to support a holistic approach to well being and healthcare, Bruce Lipton sheds light on mechanism underlying healing at cellular level. He emphasizes that ‘love’ is the most healing emotion and ‘placebo’ effect accounts for a substantial percentage of any drug's action, underscoring the significance of beliefs in health and sickness. According to him, as adults, we still believe in and act our lives out based on information we absorbed as children (pathetic indeed!). And the good news is, we can do something about the ‘tape’ our subconscious mind is playing (ol' silly beliefs) and change them NOW.[6] Further recent literature evidences provided knowledge based on scientific principles of biology of belief. There are limited studies on clinics of traditional beliefs and if we get more scientific data, we can use these traditional systems in clinical mental health management. Human belief system is formed by all the experiences learned and experimented filtered through personality.[7] The senses to capture inner and outer perceptions have higher brain potentials. Some questions that arise in this context are, does the integration and acceptance of these perceptions result in the establishment of beliefs? Does the establishment of these beliefs depend on proof demonstrations? The proofs might be the perceptions, which we can directly see or having scientific proof or custom or faith.[8,9] Beliefs are developed as stimuli received as trusted information and stored in the memory. These perceptions are generalized and established into belief. These beliefs are involved in the moral judgment of the person. Beliefs help in decision-making. Bogousslavsky and Inglin explained that, how some physicians were more successful by taking an account of patient beliefs. Beliefs influence factors involved in the development of psychopathology. They also influence the cognitive and emotional assessment, addictiveness, responses to false positives and persistent normal defensive reactions. Total brain function is required in stabilizing the belief and in responding to environmental system. Some of the brain regions and the neural circuits are very important in establishing beliefs and executing emotions. Frontal lobes play a major role in beliefs. Mental representations of the world are integrated with sub-cortical information by prefrontal cortex. Amygdala and Hippocampus are involved in the process of thinking and thus help in execution of beliefs. NMDA receptor is involved in thinking and in the development of beliefs. These beliefs are subjected to challenge. A belief that is subjected to more challenges becomes stronger. When a new stimulus comes, it creates distress in the brain with already existing patterns. The distress results in the release of dopamine (neurotransmitter) to transmit the signal.[10,11] Research findings of Young and Saxe (2008) revealed that medial prefrontal cortex is involved in processing the belief valence.[12] Right temporoparietal junction and precuneus are involved in the processing of beliefs to moral judgment. True beliefs are processed through right temporoparietal junction.[13,14] Saxe (2006) explained that beliefs judging starts at the age of five years citing example of judging of belief questions on short stories by the children.[15] Belief attribution involved activating regions of medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyri and hippocampal regions. Studies by Krummenacher et al, have shown that dopamine levels are associated with paranormal thoughts suggesting the role of dopamine in belief development in the brain.[16] Flannelly et al, illustrated on how primitive brain mechanisms that evolved to assess environmental threats in related psychiatric disorders.[17] Also were highlighted the issues such as the way beliefs can affect psychiatric symptoms through these brain systems. The theories discussed widely are related to (a) link psychiatric disorders to threat assessment and (b) explain how the normal functioning of threat assessment systems can become pathological. It is proposed that three brain structures are implicated in brain disorders in response to threat assessment and self-defense: the regions are the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia and parts of limbic system. The functionality of these regions has great potential to understand mechanism of belief formation and its relevance in neurological functions/dysfunctions. Now it is clear that biology and physiology of belief is an open area for research both at basic and clinical level. The future directions are to develop validated experimental or sound theoretical interpretation to make ‘BELIEF’ as a potential clinical management tool.

Perceptual shifts are the prerequisites for changing the belief and hence changing the biochemistry of our body favorably. Our innate desire and willingness to learn and grow lead to newer perceptions. When we consciously allow newer perceptions to enter the brain by seeking new experiences, learning new skills and changed perspectives, our body can respond in newer ways –this is the true secret of youth. Beliefs (internal representations/interpretations) thus hold the magic wand of remarkable transformations in our biochemical profile. If you are chasing joy and peace all the time everywhere but exclaim exhausted, ‘Oh, it's to be found nowhere!’, why not change your interpretation of NOWHERE to ‘NOW HERE’; just by introducing a gap, you change your awareness – that changes your belief and that changes your biochemistry in an instant!

Everything exists as a ‘Matrix of pure possibilities’ akin to ‘formless’ molten wax or moldable soft clay. We shape them into anything we desire by choosing to do so, prompted, dictated (consciously or unconsciously) by our beliefs. The awareness that we are part of these ever-changing fields of energy that constantly interact with one another is what gives us the key hitherto elusive, to unlock the immense power within us. And it is our awareness of this awesome truth that changes everything. Then we transform ourselves from passive onlookers to powerful creators. Our beliefs provide the script to write or re-write the code of our reality.

Thoughts and beliefs are an integral part of the brain's operations. Neurotransmitters could be termed the ‘words’ brain uses to communicate with exchange of information occurring constantly, mediated by these molecular messengers. Unraveling the mystery of this molecular music induced by the magic of beliefs, dramatically influencing the biochemistry of brain could be an exciting adventure and a worth pursuing cerebral challenge.


1. Candace Pert. Molecules of emotion: Why you feel the way you feel. New York, USA: Scribner Publications; 2003. ISBN-10: 0684846349.
2. Ornstein R, Sobel D. The healing brain: Breakthrough discoveries about how the brain keeps us healthy. USA: Malor Books; 1999. ISBN-10: 1883536170.
3. Robbins A. Unlimited power: The new science of personal excellence. UK: Simon and Schuster; 1986. ISBN 0-7434-0939-6.
4. Braden G. The spontaneous healing of belief. Hay House Publishers (India) Pvt. Ltd; 2008. ISBN 978-81-89988-39-5.
5. Chopra D. Ageless body, timeless mind: The quantum alternative to growing old. Hormony Publishers; 1994. ISBN -10: 0517882124.
6. Lipton B. The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter and miracles. Mountain of Love Publishers; 2005. ISBN 978-0975991473.
7. Bogousslavsky J, Inglin M. Beliefs and the brain. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:129–32. [PubMed: 17622716]
8. Gundersen L. Faith and healing. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:169–72. [PubMed: 10644287]
9. Mueller PS, Plevak DJ, Rummans TA. Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:1225–35. [PubMed: 11761504]
10. Patel AD, Peretz I, Tramo M, Labreque R. Processing prosodic and musical patterns: A neuropsychological investigation. Brain Lang. 1998;61:123–44. [PubMed: 9448936]
11. Tramo MJ. Biology and music. Music of the hemispheres. Science. 2001;291:54–6. [PubMed: 11192009]
12. Young L, Saxe R. The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. Neuroimage. 2008;40:1912–20. [PubMed: 18342544]
13. Aichhorn M, Perner J, Weiss B, Kronbichler M, Staffen W, Ladurner G. Temporo-parietal junction activity in theory-of-mind tasks: Falseness, beliefs, or attention. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:1179–92. [PubMed: 18702587]
14. Abraham A, Rakoczy H, Werning M, von Cramon DY, Schubotz RI. Matching mind to world and vice versa: Functional dissociations between belief and desire mental state processing. Soc Neurosci. 2009;1:18. [PubMed: 19670085]
15. Saxe R. Why and how to study Theory of Mind with fMRI. Brain Res. 2006;1079:57–65. [PubMed: 16480695]
16. Krummenacher P, Mohr C, Haker H, Brugger P. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009 Jun 30; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed: 19642883]
17. Flannelly KJ, Koenig HG, Galek K, Ellison CG. Beliefs, mental health, and evolutionary threat assessment systems in the brain. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:996–1003. [PubMed: 18091193]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

HRPacing ...


Heart Rate Pacing is a technique used to stay within ones energy reserves. The anaerobic threshold (AT) is the heart rate at which aerobic energy surges. The threshold is often around about 60% of a ones maximum heart rate, though each person is different and an individual's threshold may vary from day to day or within a day.

(Note: Maximum heart rate is 220 minus ones age. For a 50 year old, 60% of maximum heart rate is (220 - 50) x 0.6 = 102 bpm.)


* Changes colour to indicate:

- Resting - (REST) Lavender

- Recovery (RECOVER) - Green (RHR + 10%)

- Exertion (EXERT) - Orange (RHR + 20%)

- Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - Red ((220-50)x0.6)

* Set an alert based on:

- reaching Anaerobic Threshold Zone, or

- custom set Maximum Heart Rate.

* Set the Anaerobic Threshold Tolerance from 0.6 (default) to 0.5 if desired.

* Set a custom interval between alerts (15 secs default).

* Displays 12/24 hour clock based on user settings in Fitbit profile.

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... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for the introductory workshop by donating £65

you can pay for an individual care plan by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my rehabilitation treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for a monthly session by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my follow up treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

Thank you very much !

… duplicitous …

duplicitous …

summary of the 5 major diagnostic criteria from 1988 onwards …

summary of the 5 major diagnostic criteria from 1988 onwards …

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