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trapped in bed by my HR …

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Yes, I know … heart rate, anaerobic threshold, etc etc etc … again!

I realise that if you are a regular fragmented.ME blog reader, you may have noticed that I have previously written about anaerobic threshold (AT) and using my FitBit as a heart rate (HR) monitor, and that I allude to these in many of my other blog posts too.

This is because it’s very important in the lives of those with severe energy limitations and so we come back to it often as the only real way to manage our illness and symptoms.

It may therefore seem, to a non sufferer, like I’m covering old ground with the following post.

However, firstly when you have severe ME and PEM every day it’s an ongoing issue, the high heart rate, the pacing and the PEM.

Secondly, the two previous blog posts respectively discussed the scientific, and the personal and practical side of the anaerobic threshold. Reading those prior to reading this one will give the details in this post more depth of meaning but is not necessary. These two blog posts can be read by going to ‘anaerobic threshold & ME …’ and ‘adrenaline & ME …’. 

Nevertheless, in the following blog post I am going to discuss entirely different information from an entirely different perspective.

I will look at how, when I pay attention to my FitBit heart rate notifications, I will regularly find myself trapped in bed but not with major symptoms. Yet, when I ignore my HR I will still find myself in bed, but with major PEM and ME symptoms and always migraine as part of it.

In the following, I will address what that means for me in the real world.

 t r a p p e d   i n   b e d   b y   m y 
 h e a r t   r a t e 

useful definitions for understanding the blog …

HR:
the speed at which the heart beats.

Action for ME : pacing:
Pacing is a self-management tool. It is a technique to help you take control of the balance of activity and rest, and learn how to communicate to other people about the balance that usually works best for you.

adrenaline:
a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increases rates of blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and prepares muscles for exertion.

CDC : post exertional malaise (PEM):
Post exertional malaise (PEM) is the worsening of symptoms following even minor physical or mental exertion, with symptoms typically worsening 12 to 48 hours after activity and lasting for days or even weeks. PEM can be mitigated by activity management (pacing).

aerobic:
Aerobic means ‘with air’ and refers to the body producing energy with the use of oxygen. This typically involves any exercise that lasts longer than two minutes in duration. Continuous ‘steady state’ exercise is performed aerobically.

anaerobic:
Anaerobic means ‘without air’ and refers to the body producing energy without oxygen. This is typically exercise that is performed at a higher intensity. There are two ways that the body can produce energy anaerobically.

anaerobic threshold:
Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and / or lactic acid begins to increase rapidly. It is often expressed as 85% of maximum heart rate or 75% of maximum oxygen intake. When exercising at or below the lactate threshold, any lactate produced by the muscles is removed by the body without it building up.

work out your AT:
most people with ME/CFS have an AT that is usually 50-60% of healthy people, use this formula to estimate your own AT:
(220 – age) * 0.6 = estimated AT
(If you are more severely ill, use 50% or 0.5 instead of 0.6)
Alternatively, women can try:
(220 – (age * .88)) * 0.6 = estimated AT
(Or if severely ill, use 0.5 instead of 0.6)

background …

Based on these calculations my AT is : 84 … So I set my HR monitor to vibrate at 81 giving me time to stop what I’m doing before it reaches AT. In reality this never happens because my heart rate continues to rise, sometimes for minutes, after I stop. The device I use is not that sensitive and so I always reach AT even with that leeway.

doing things I want to do …

In an ideal world, or situation, I would love to be able to just get up and out of bed, like I used to, without giving any thought to my heart rate, or other physical symptoms, especially those I get when I choose to ignore my heart rate level.

I can’t tell you how much I want to be able to …

go back to the way I used to be …

to wake up and not even have to think too much about my illness …

it feels like it rules my life right now …

and that’s because it does …

ME rules my life and my thoughts …

Think about all the things you do without even thinking. Imagine not being able to do those things without pain or without getting more severe symptoms and being so exhausted that you can’t even contemplate pushing yourself.

Imagine how different your life might be.

doing things that are necessary …

Now imagine a little bit deeper. Can you imagine not being able to do even the necessary things you need to do.

Things like bathing, cooking, eating, cleaning, laundry, food shopping, medical appointments. Basic things that might be done every single day without giving it a second thought.

Imagine what it might be like, what it might feel like, not being able to do them.

A person with ME, even at the mild end, cannot do anything without thought. They have to assess the impact of every single activity.

When the ME is severe then they may not even be able to do anything for themselves without getting much sicker.

I have severe ME.

personal care …

There are so many aspects of my personal care that I have had to forgo. Not just because of my AT, though I don’t doubt these would increase my symptoms and take me into and above my AT exponentially, but simply because I feel too poorly, too exhausted, in the here and now, to do them. There are days when I am that tired (exhausted) that I cannot even lift my arms.

These personal care aspects include, but are not limited to: bathing / showering; washing my hair more than once every ten days; I never style my hair any more, ever; I don’t go to the beauty salon for hair cuts or other beauty treatments nor do I get professional treatments or hair cuts at home; I don’t have the energy to get dressed daily; or wear makeup. These are some of the things I used to do and would love to be able to do again.

On a more personal level there are things that I feel I must still do for myself. Because on a psychological level I feel that I cannot yet allow someone to do them for me even though on a physical level I am sick enough to warrant this.

I will list some of them with their impacting and corresponding average heart rate.

    • brushing my teeth : HR 115 – 155
    • brushing my hair : HR 125 – 145 (sat down)
    • phone call to GP : HR 125+ (and for at least an hour after) (anxiety was horrific)
    • change my PJs (every other day if I can) : HR 140+
    • going to the dentist : HR 150+ (for over 10 hours of that day)
    • having a bath and washing my hair : HR 150+ (for the duration and at least an hour afterwards)

So when, or if, I pay attention to these numbers it means that I can’t actually do anything for myself. I ought to be in bed full time. Yet, the self esteem I gain from doing these things has a psychological weight and balance that far outweighs PEM. For now it does anyway.

The dilemma though is real. Do I listen to my HR? Stay put, and allow someone else to take care of me personally. And see if I recover some. Because, on this one, there are no guarantees. I’ve never done it, so I have no idea how my body will respond.

The guilt, and embarrassment, will surely have an impact, which might balance out or be equal to the PEM brought on by doing it myself.

What an awful dilemma to have. How do I decide? Or do I wait till the decision is made for me? Until I can no longer do anything for myself …

eating …

Firstly, I must point out that I don’t do any cooking, or shopping, my husband, who is also my carer, does both of these.

Eating, digesting, and feeling guilty really raises my heart rate.

Eating because I have to sit up. Digesting, because it takes huge amounts of energy to digest food. Guilt, because I always feel guilty around food times at my lack of help in preparing, cooking, and cleaning up.

    • making simple very easy food : HR 130+
    • eating light food : HR 90+
    • eating heavy food or too much food : HR 150+ (for prolonged periods of time)

I do now allow my husband to shop and cook. I don’t really have a choice as to eating and digesting but I have limited the kinds of foods and how much food I eat. This helps immensely but feels so restrictive when I just fancy something that I think, or know, has a negative effect on my HR and ultimately my health.

The only option available here is being tube fed. Something that I don’t ever want. I love my real food. Plus, I can digest food still, I just have to limit to foods I can digest or deal with lots of digestive issues and HR increases.

I’m definitely hanging on to this to the very end.

home …

Although my husband does a weekly clean and we have a robot hoover too, I still feel as though I have to do things about the house. Things that are expected of me or that I feel I can’t ask for help with …

    • making the bed (if the husband is out or busy working from home when I get up) : HR 150+
    • putting my washing on : HR 120+
    • hanging my washing on the maiden : HR 135+
    • folding my washing (mainly my husband does this for me while he is working from home, but sometimes I have to do it) : HR 150+ (depending how much folding there is)

You can see I don’t really do much in terms of housework. But the little I do has a severe impact on my HR and health.

If I could grapple with the guilt of leaving the bed and allowing someone to do my tiny bits of laundry, then I am sure I could let this one go.

I would be much more willing to change things in this area of my life than change things from the personal care and the eating areas.

coping with feelings …

So how do I cope.

How do I cope with the way living like this can make you feel.

I obviously have some very down days.

But mostly I’ve got this …

I do have several techniques I use, some which I really don’t recommend but I am trying to be real with you here.

Firstly, I push my feelings down. I stuff them way deep down inside of me and try not to let them surface, so that I don’t have to face myself. I pretend I’m not bothered by it and I appear to take it all in my stride.

Then WHAM … one day these feelings will surface and they will hit me square on and I cry and cry and cry …

At these times I’m amazed at how much pain there is spilling out.

I never knew I had so much pain inside me …

Secondly, and I’ve tried to stop this one so many times, but I think it’s a favourite. Don’t most women! I use retail therapy as a diversion by going online shopping and bargain hunting online.

The postman used to bring parcels galore every single day. At first, when I started buying lots of stuff, I would get a little buzz out of it but by the end I didn’t even want to open the parcels because I had no energy to sort out the packaging and find somewhere for them to go. And the smells of the packaging and inks were too much for my poorly body. Yes, it really got that bad.

I think that writing this website is actually a follow on from all that shopping, and it’s really just another diversion technique. But, at least it means I’m not spending money that I don’t actually have and I am raising awareness for this illness too.

I think if I didn’t do something, use my brain, or something else, then I would go mad. I really do struggle to just ‘be’ all the time. By nature, I am definitely a doing kind of person. Whereas, with this illness, you can really benefit health wise when you are more of a being kind of person. In this respect, the struggle is very real.

As diversions go, I’m guessing this is a safe way to deal with my illness. Journaling, can be cathartic and healing.

keeping my mind occupied …

This beautiful online space is what also keeps my mind occupied. And I do a lot of planning in my head. I plan and make lists of blog posts I may never be able to do, but I plan all the same and you maybe get very light versions of what I’d really like to write.

Another thing that I enjoy is reading.

I read, when I can. When I can’t read because I’m too poorly then I listen to audio books and audio dramas.

I also listen to plenty of podcasts too.

I can’t watch more than a couple of hours TV a day, sometimes none at all as it’s too stimulating in a way that makes my body even more poorly, unlike listening and reading.

I love music. I used to live for music. I do still listen to music. That said though, listening to music can sometimes be difficult too. This is probably because of too many things needing to be processed simultaneously.

Because of this and right now my ears can still cope with single voices and my eyes can sometimes take the words in and so I use them both as a means for keeping my mind occupied.

keeping my spirits up …

By nature I am a very hopeful person.

My paternal grandmother pointed this out to me when I was a young sick single parent. She said,

I am so proud of you …
I have never met anyone who has as much hope for the future despite their present situation …

Bless her … and bless me too … I can hardly remember that girl …

… hope …
… a feeling of expectation and desire …
… for a particular thing to happen …

As I re-read that beautiful definition of hope, I find the tears dropping from my eyes.

I don’t know if I have much hope left. I was 25 years of age and sick when my grandmother said the above. I am now 59, and still sick. Actually I am much sicker, and sadly not much has changed in the medical world of ME.

My hope has definitely faded … because the medical world has failed me …

in summary & in conclusion …

What a dilemma to have.

Do you stay in bed in order to stop your heart rate going into your anaerobic threshold and causing post exertional malaise or do you end up in bed because you ignore your heart rate and end up suffering with post exertional malaise …

Either way …

… you end up in bed …

a personal concluding note …

Personally, for now, I feel as though I have pulled back as much as I can cope with. To pull back any more would have an effect of its own, which I am sure would be equal to any PEM as a result of physical activity.

And so, I stay as I am.

In bed most of the time, regardless of the reason … be it because I’ve done too much or because I’m trying to stay within my energy ability … it is still bed … and I am still stuck in it …

Please feel free to contact me to share your outcomes or with any questions you may have.

 fragmented.ME xXx

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My birth name is Denise, but I’m know as Bella to those who love me. I have a first class honours degree in education & psychology and a strong passion to keep learning and educating others ... I have severe ME/CFS and lots of other chronic illnesses and I started this blog as an expansion to my instagram page, where I advocate for chronic illness. I am married and have two grown up boys, or should I say young men. I have three gorgeous grandchildren, one boy and two girls. And despite being chronically sick and housebound I am mostly happy. 🥰

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10 steps to practicing Radical Acceptance
according to DBT’s founder, Marsha Linehan:

 

1.  Observe that you are questioning or fighting reality (“it shouldn’t be this way”)

2.  Remind yourself that the unpleasant reality is just as it is and cannot be changed (“this is what happened”)

3.  Remind yourself that there are causes for the reality (“this is how things happened”)

4.  Practice accepting with your whole self (mind, body, spirit) - Use accepting self-talk, relaxation techniques, mindfulness and/or imagery

5.  List all of the behaviors you would engage in if you did accept the facts and then engage in those behaviors as if you have already accepted the facts

6.  Imagine, in your mind’s eye, believing what you do not want to accept and rehearse in your mind what you would do if you accepted what seems unacceptable

7.  Attend to body sensations as you think about what you need to accept

8.  Allow disappointment, sadness or grief to arise within you

9.  Acknowledge that life can be worth living even when there is pain

10.  Do pros and cons if you find yourself resisting practicing acceptance

Logo of ijpsych

2009 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 239–241.
doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285
PMCID: PMC2802367
PMID: 20048445

The biochemistry of belief

Address for correspondence: Dr. TS Sathyanarayana Rao, Department of Psychiatry, JSS University, JSS Medical College Hospital, M.G. Road, Mysore - 570 004, India. E-mail: moc.oohay@91oarsst
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

“Man is what he believes”

Anton Chekhov

Beliefs are basically the guiding principles in life that provide direction and meaning in life. Beliefs are the preset, organized filters to our perceptions of the world (external and internal). Beliefs are like ‘Internal commands’ to the brain as to how to represent what is happening, when we congruently believe something to be true. In the absence of beliefs or inability to tap into them, people feel disempowered.

Beliefs originate from what we hear - and keep on hearing from others, ever since we were children (and even before that!). The sources of beliefs include environment, events, knowledge, past experiences, visualization etc. One of the biggest misconceptions people often harbor is that belief is a static, intellectual concept. Nothing can be farther from truth! Beliefs are a choice. We have the power to choose our beliefs. Our beliefs become our reality.

Beliefs are not just cold mental premises, but are ‘hot stuff’ intertwined with emotions (conscious or unconscious). Perhaps, that is why we feel threatened or react with sometimes uncalled for aggression, when we believe our beliefs are being challenged! Research findings have repeatedly pointed out that the emotional brain is no longer confined to the classical locales of the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus.[1] The sensory inputs we receive from the environment undergo a filtering process as they travel across one or more synapses, ultimately reaching the area of higher processing, like the frontal lobes. There, the sensory information enters our conscious awareness. What portion of this sensory information enters is determined by our beliefs. Fortunately for us, receptors on the cell membranes are flexible, which can alter in sensitivity and conformation. In other words, even when we feel stuck ‘emotionally’, there is always a biochemical potential for change and possible growth. When we choose to change our thoughts (bursts of neurochemicals!), we become open and receptive to other pieces of sensory information hitherto blocked by our beliefs! When we change our thinking, we change our beliefs. When we change our beliefs, we change our behavior.

A mention of the ‘Placebo’ is most appropriate at this juncture. Medical history is replete with numerous reported cases where placebos were found to have a profound effect on a variety of disorders. One such astounding case was that of a woman suffering from severe nausea and vomiting. Objective measurements of her gastric contractions indicated a disrupted pattern matching the condition she complained of. Then a ‘new, magical, extremely potent’ drug was offered to her, which would, the doctors proclaimed, undoubtedly cure her nausea. Within a few minutes, her nausea vanished! The very same gastric tests now revealed normal pattern, when, in actuality, she had been given syrup of ipecac, a substance usually used to induce nausea! When the syrup was presented to her, paired with the strong suggestion of relief of nausea, by an authority figure, it acted as a (command) message to the brain that triggered a cascade of self-regulatory biochemical responses within the body.[2] This instance dramatically demonstrates that the influence of placebo could be more potent than expected drug effect.

An important observation was that, part of the placebo response seemed to involve the meaning of the disorder or the illness to the individual. In other words, the person's belief or how she/he interprets (inter-presents or internally represents) directly governs the biological response or behavior. Another remarkable study involved a schizophrenic. This woman was observed to have split personality. Under normal conditions, her blood glucose levels were normal. However, the moment she believed she was diabetic, her entire physiology changed to become that of a diabetic, including elevated blood glucose levels.[3]

Suggestions or symbolic messages shape beliefs that in turn affect our physical well being. Several cases of ‘Disappearance of warts’ have been reported by Ornstein and Sobel wherein they ponder on how the brain translates the suggestions (sometimes using hypnosis) into systematic biochemical battle strategies such as chemical messengers sent to enlist the aid of immune cells in an assault on the microbe-induced miniature tumor or probably small arteries are selectively constricted, cutting off the vital nutrient supply to warts but not touching the neighboring healthy cells.[2]

Findings of carefully designed research indicate that our interpretation of what we are seeing (experiencing) can literally alter our physiology. In fact, all symptoms of medicine work through our beliefs. By subtly transforming the unknown (disease/disorder) into something known, named, tamed and explained, alarm reactions in the brain can be calmed down. All therapies have a hidden, symbolic value and influence on the psyche, besides the direct specific effect they may have on the body.

Just as amazingly life-affirming placebos are, the reverse, “Nocebo' has been observed to be playing its part too. It is associated with negative, life-threatening or disempowering beliefs. Arthur Barsky, a psychiatrist states that it is the patient's expectations – beliefs whether a drug or procedure works or will have side effects – that plays a crucial role in the outcome.[4]

The biochemistry of our body stems from our awareness.[5] Belief-reinforced awareness becomes our biochemistry. Each and every tiny cell in our body is perfectly and absolutely aware of our thoughts, feelings and of course, our beliefs. There is a beautiful saying ‘Nobody grows old. When people stop growing, they become old’. If you believe you are fragile, the biochemistry of your body unquestionably obeys and manifests it. If you believe you are tough (irrespective of your weight and bone density!), your body undeniably mirrors it. When you believe you are depressed (more precisely, when you become consciously aware of your ‘Being depressed’), you stamp the raw data received through your sense organs, with a judgment – that is your personal view – and physically become the ‘interpretation’ as you internalize it. A classic example is ‘Psychosocial dwarfism’, wherein children who feel and believethat they are unloved, translate the perceived lack of love into depleted levels of growth hormone, in contrast to the strongly held view that growth hormone is released according to a preprogrammed schedule coded into the individual's genes!

Providing scientific evidence to support a holistic approach to well being and healthcare, Bruce Lipton sheds light on mechanism underlying healing at cellular level. He emphasizes that ‘love’ is the most healing emotion and ‘placebo’ effect accounts for a substantial percentage of any drug's action, underscoring the significance of beliefs in health and sickness. According to him, as adults, we still believe in and act our lives out based on information we absorbed as children (pathetic indeed!). And the good news is, we can do something about the ‘tape’ our subconscious mind is playing (ol' silly beliefs) and change them NOW.[6] Further recent literature evidences provided knowledge based on scientific principles of biology of belief. There are limited studies on clinics of traditional beliefs and if we get more scientific data, we can use these traditional systems in clinical mental health management. Human belief system is formed by all the experiences learned and experimented filtered through personality.[7] The senses to capture inner and outer perceptions have higher brain potentials. Some questions that arise in this context are, does the integration and acceptance of these perceptions result in the establishment of beliefs? Does the establishment of these beliefs depend on proof demonstrations? The proofs might be the perceptions, which we can directly see or having scientific proof or custom or faith.[8,9] Beliefs are developed as stimuli received as trusted information and stored in the memory. These perceptions are generalized and established into belief. These beliefs are involved in the moral judgment of the person. Beliefs help in decision-making. Bogousslavsky and Inglin explained that, how some physicians were more successful by taking an account of patient beliefs. Beliefs influence factors involved in the development of psychopathology. They also influence the cognitive and emotional assessment, addictiveness, responses to false positives and persistent normal defensive reactions. Total brain function is required in stabilizing the belief and in responding to environmental system. Some of the brain regions and the neural circuits are very important in establishing beliefs and executing emotions. Frontal lobes play a major role in beliefs. Mental representations of the world are integrated with sub-cortical information by prefrontal cortex. Amygdala and Hippocampus are involved in the process of thinking and thus help in execution of beliefs. NMDA receptor is involved in thinking and in the development of beliefs. These beliefs are subjected to challenge. A belief that is subjected to more challenges becomes stronger. When a new stimulus comes, it creates distress in the brain with already existing patterns. The distress results in the release of dopamine (neurotransmitter) to transmit the signal.[10,11] Research findings of Young and Saxe (2008) revealed that medial prefrontal cortex is involved in processing the belief valence.[12] Right temporoparietal junction and precuneus are involved in the processing of beliefs to moral judgment. True beliefs are processed through right temporoparietal junction.[13,14] Saxe (2006) explained that beliefs judging starts at the age of five years citing example of judging of belief questions on short stories by the children.[15] Belief attribution involved activating regions of medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyri and hippocampal regions. Studies by Krummenacher et al, have shown that dopamine levels are associated with paranormal thoughts suggesting the role of dopamine in belief development in the brain.[16] Flannelly et al, illustrated on how primitive brain mechanisms that evolved to assess environmental threats in related psychiatric disorders.[17] Also were highlighted the issues such as the way beliefs can affect psychiatric symptoms through these brain systems. The theories discussed widely are related to (a) link psychiatric disorders to threat assessment and (b) explain how the normal functioning of threat assessment systems can become pathological. It is proposed that three brain structures are implicated in brain disorders in response to threat assessment and self-defense: the regions are the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia and parts of limbic system. The functionality of these regions has great potential to understand mechanism of belief formation and its relevance in neurological functions/dysfunctions. Now it is clear that biology and physiology of belief is an open area for research both at basic and clinical level. The future directions are to develop validated experimental or sound theoretical interpretation to make ‘BELIEF’ as a potential clinical management tool.

Perceptual shifts are the prerequisites for changing the belief and hence changing the biochemistry of our body favorably. Our innate desire and willingness to learn and grow lead to newer perceptions. When we consciously allow newer perceptions to enter the brain by seeking new experiences, learning new skills and changed perspectives, our body can respond in newer ways –this is the true secret of youth. Beliefs (internal representations/interpretations) thus hold the magic wand of remarkable transformations in our biochemical profile. If you are chasing joy and peace all the time everywhere but exclaim exhausted, ‘Oh, it's to be found nowhere!’, why not change your interpretation of NOWHERE to ‘NOW HERE’; just by introducing a gap, you change your awareness – that changes your belief and that changes your biochemistry in an instant!

Everything exists as a ‘Matrix of pure possibilities’ akin to ‘formless’ molten wax or moldable soft clay. We shape them into anything we desire by choosing to do so, prompted, dictated (consciously or unconsciously) by our beliefs. The awareness that we are part of these ever-changing fields of energy that constantly interact with one another is what gives us the key hitherto elusive, to unlock the immense power within us. And it is our awareness of this awesome truth that changes everything. Then we transform ourselves from passive onlookers to powerful creators. Our beliefs provide the script to write or re-write the code of our reality.

Thoughts and beliefs are an integral part of the brain's operations. Neurotransmitters could be termed the ‘words’ brain uses to communicate with exchange of information occurring constantly, mediated by these molecular messengers. Unraveling the mystery of this molecular music induced by the magic of beliefs, dramatically influencing the biochemistry of brain could be an exciting adventure and a worth pursuing cerebral challenge.

REFERENCES

1. Candace Pert. Molecules of emotion: Why you feel the way you feel. New York, USA: Scribner Publications; 2003. ISBN-10: 0684846349.
2. Ornstein R, Sobel D. The healing brain: Breakthrough discoveries about how the brain keeps us healthy. USA: Malor Books; 1999. ISBN-10: 1883536170.
3. Robbins A. Unlimited power: The new science of personal excellence. UK: Simon and Schuster; 1986. ISBN 0-7434-0939-6.
4. Braden G. The spontaneous healing of belief. Hay House Publishers (India) Pvt. Ltd; 2008. ISBN 978-81-89988-39-5.
5. Chopra D. Ageless body, timeless mind: The quantum alternative to growing old. Hormony Publishers; 1994. ISBN -10: 0517882124.
6. Lipton B. The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter and miracles. Mountain of Love Publishers; 2005. ISBN 978-0975991473.
7. Bogousslavsky J, Inglin M. Beliefs and the brain. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:129–32. [PubMed: 17622716]
8. Gundersen L. Faith and healing. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:169–72. [PubMed: 10644287]
9. Mueller PS, Plevak DJ, Rummans TA. Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:1225–35. [PubMed: 11761504]
10. Patel AD, Peretz I, Tramo M, Labreque R. Processing prosodic and musical patterns: A neuropsychological investigation. Brain Lang. 1998;61:123–44. [PubMed: 9448936]
11. Tramo MJ. Biology and music. Music of the hemispheres. Science. 2001;291:54–6. [PubMed: 11192009]
12. Young L, Saxe R. The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. Neuroimage. 2008;40:1912–20. [PubMed: 18342544]
13. Aichhorn M, Perner J, Weiss B, Kronbichler M, Staffen W, Ladurner G. Temporo-parietal junction activity in theory-of-mind tasks: Falseness, beliefs, or attention. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:1179–92. [PubMed: 18702587]
14. Abraham A, Rakoczy H, Werning M, von Cramon DY, Schubotz RI. Matching mind to world and vice versa: Functional dissociations between belief and desire mental state processing. Soc Neurosci. 2009;1:18. [PubMed: 19670085]
15. Saxe R. Why and how to study Theory of Mind with fMRI. Brain Res. 2006;1079:57–65. [PubMed: 16480695]
16. Krummenacher P, Mohr C, Haker H, Brugger P. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009 Jun 30; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed: 19642883]
17. Flannelly KJ, Koenig HG, Galek K, Ellison CG. Beliefs, mental health, and evolutionary threat assessment systems in the brain. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:996–1003. [PubMed: 18091193]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

HRPacing ...

Description

Heart Rate Pacing is a technique used to stay within ones energy reserves. The anaerobic threshold (AT) is the heart rate at which aerobic energy surges. The threshold is often around about 60% of a ones maximum heart rate, though each person is different and an individual's threshold may vary from day to day or within a day.

(Note: Maximum heart rate is 220 minus ones age. For a 50 year old, 60% of maximum heart rate is (220 - 50) x 0.6 = 102 bpm.)

Features:

* Changes colour to indicate:

- Resting - (REST) Lavender

- Recovery (RECOVER) - Green (RHR + 10%)

- Exertion (EXERT) - Orange (RHR + 20%)

- Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - Red ((220-50)x0.6)

* Set an alert based on:

- reaching Anaerobic Threshold Zone, or

- custom set Maximum Heart Rate.

* Set the Anaerobic Threshold Tolerance from 0.6 (default) to 0.5 if desired.

* Set a custom interval between alerts (15 secs default).

* Displays 12/24 hour clock based on user settings in Fitbit profile.

ME Awareness Fundraising : Ten Books In Ten Months

 

I am fundraising for The ME Trust UK as part of ME Awareness 2021

I will be fundraising for ten months starting in May 2021 through to end of February 2022.

Please take the time to read what it is about and donate if you can.

I am going to read 10 books in 10 months and document them on my ‘ten books in ten months ...’ page.

Please click the link above or below to donate and help me raise as much money as we can
for The ME Trust UK

I have been sick since 1984. It took till 2001 for doctors to diagnose me with ME.
Initially, I was mildly sick then moderately but in recent years I’ve progressed to being severely affected.
I am housebound and often bedbound for months on end.

I really want to raise awareness and to raise money to help research #endME.

I am planning on reading ten books in ten months starting 12th May, which is international ME Awareness Day.
At one time in my life I could have read ten books in ten days. But this challenge will be hard for me to do.

So please please if you can support me and help raise money for the ME Trust UK

YOU CAN DONATE BY CLICKING THE LINK BELOW

ME Awareness Fundraising : Ten Books In Ten Months

[give_form id="3285"]

help me fund my ME treatment ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for the introductory workshop by donating £65

you can pay for an individual care plan by donating £71

you can pay for a monthly session by donating £71

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical review by donating £121

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

you can pay for the individual assessment by donating £141

you can pay for a medical assessment by donating £187

Thank you very much !

help me fund my assessment treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for a medical assessment by donating £187

you can pay for an initial assessment by donating £141

you can pay for a medical review by donating £121

Thank you very much !

help me fund my preparation for rehabilitation treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for the introductory workshop by donating £65

you can pay for an individual care plan by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my rehabilitation treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for a monthly session by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my follow up treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

Thank you very much !

ME Awareness Fundraising : Ten Books In Ten Months

 

I am fundraising for The ME Trust UK as part of ME Awareness 2021

I will be fundraising for ten months starting in May 2021 through to end of February 2022.

You will see this pop once in each week that you visit my site during this ten month period.

Please take the time to read what it is about and donate if you can.

I am going to read 10 books in 10 months and document them on my ‘ten books in ten months ...’ page.

Please click the link above or below to donate and help me raise as much money as we can
for The ME Trust UK

I have been sick since 1984. It took till 2001 for doctors to diagnose me with ME.
Initially, I was mildly sick then moderately but in recent years I’ve progressed to being severely affected.
I am housebound and often bedbound for months on end.

I really want to raise awareness and to raise money to help research #endME.

I am planning on reading ten books in ten months starting 12th May, which is international ME Awareness Day.
At one time in my life I could have read ten books in ten days. But this challenge will be hard for me to do.

So please please if you can support me and help raise money for the ME Trust UK.

YOU CAN DONATE BY CLICKING THE LINK BELOW

ME Awareness Fundraising : Ten Books In Ten Months

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