fragmented.ME …
illness & health ...

anaerobic threshold & ME …

Reading time: 10 Minutes

I have realised for quite some time that adrenaline is clearly linked to my ME and PEM. And so this blog post has been a long time coming. It is also going to be a post that I add to as I go through the process myself and learn new skills to handle my illness. So in line with that, the blog date will be updated and the post will show at the later date, even though its original writing date is March 2021, and those who are subscribed will get emails each time the post is updated.

Research

I did a fair bit of research regarding this matter. The most important piece of information that I found can be read by going to ‘adrenaline & ME …’on my site.

However, I also found lots of other useful and practical research, especially around managing ME using a heart rate monitor. The best of these can be read by going to ‘ HRM-Factsheet ’. And ‘ PEM Timecourse Factsheet ’ and ‘ Energy Saving Factsheet ’.

Using these above three documents as my main source of information (I even laminated them), plus my FitBit and making lots of informative notes on my iPad, I set myself a program off.

I Thought It Was Going To Be Easy

The Easy Bit …
HRPacing ...

I already owned a Fitbit Sense and I downloaded an app to it, called HRPacing, which is free. I set the app up accordingly, based on my age, which is done automatically if you have the information already in your FitBit account, and I used the anaerobic threshold at 0.5% option (in line with guidance around severe ME).

I was all set up and ready to go. The only thing you need to realise, which at first I didn’t, is that the app needs to be kept always active on the Fitbit for it to work. this uses extra battery and my battery charging cycle went from 5-6 days to 3+ days. But it does work. In fact it works really well.

The Hard Bit …

When I first switched the app on, I had this fancy idea that I could just run with it and that would be it. I figured that each time when it vibrated, to warn me I was in anaerobic state, I would stop what I was doing, rest and recover, and then once I was recovered I would carry on with whatever I had been doing.

Ha ha haaa … bloody HA!

That was incredibly naive of me and also a good indication as to why I am as sick as I am. And so I had to tweak my ideas on things. Because I couldn’t stop, sometimes I would make myself extremely poorly in order to finish a task off, even with the physical symptoms and my FitBit vibrating incessantly on my wrist. Still, I would carry on …

A Process Of Elimination

I quickly realised it wasn’t going to be as simple as I thought. The watch seemed to be vibrating at me all the time. Especially when I was doing things I felt I couldn’t just stop in the middle of. But that is the nature of the beast we are dealing with here. ME is I relentless and equally as u forgiving.

So, I decided that I would first have to work out what I could and couldn’t do. I would need to find out what activities raised my HR to an anaerobic state and which didn’t. This wasn’t about a simple acknowledgment of HR in relation to what happened when I did the things I felt I needed to do. It was about really knowing what was going on, what happened to my HR, when it happened, and for how long it happened too. For instance, did my HR gradually rise, or was it instant, like when I stood up, and once my HR was risen did it stay high, and for how long after I stopped the activity did it stay high.

The most important thing I had already accepted was that I knew, for sure, living like I was now was certainly what was keeping me ill and gradually making me worse. I just needed to find out the impact each activity was having. Then the hard bit, I needed to change accordingly!

What I Regularly Do

My plan was to first carry on as I would normally. To document as much information as would be useful. Then determine which activities could be negotiable, those which could be done differently, and those that are simply non-negotiable.

What I’d like to point out here is, I don’t really do that much. My life is very far from what I would like to accept it to be, and even further away from what it has previously been. I’ve pulled back on so much because of how sick I am. That said, because I’m getting sicker all the time, I really don’t have a choice but to take this seriously. I feel that if I don’t there’s only one way this is going to end.

Below is a list of the things I do most days and anything I do regularly. There may be things I do infrequently that aren’t mentioned here but that’s because I only ever do what’s absolutely necessary. And I’m still getting sicker.

  • Wake up and take my pain medication.
  • Go to the bathroom and then get back in bed and just lie there, usually meditating, while my tablets work (usually about an hour).
  • Go downstairs and make myself a latte to bring back to bed and if I’m well enough I’ll open the blinds (there’s a gorgeous view from our bedroom window). I will check my messages, email, this website and Instagram at some point too.
  • About an hour later I get up. Go to the bathroom and change my smalls (who am I kidding … my BIGS). I brush my teeth (half the timer time on the toothbrush (1 1/2 minutes I think).
  • I don’t get dressed unless I’m going to a medical appointment, which I avoid at all costs. Every other day I change my PJs. Once a week I am to bathe and wash my hair, though in reality it’s more like every ten days (17 days is the longest I’ve gone).
  • I then go back to the bedroom and make the bed, if I can. That said, during lockdown my husband has been doing it most days.
  • I then go downstairs with my bag of necessary stuff (more about that bag later) and I put my cup and any other pots in water to soak.
  • I go to the settee and lie as flat as I can because by this time I’m already totally exhausted.
  • Once I’ve recovered enough I’ll get my iPhone or my iPad, or even my kindle, out and so some mental work.
  • My digestion is appalling so I only eat when I’m truly hungry, but if I get hungry during the day I only ever eat easy food like microwave stuff, bananas, and dry crackers. ..
  • My husband makes tea for 18:00 every night.
  • We watch TV with tea for about an hour. Then turn it off till 21:00 when we watch another hour of TV. I can’t have too much TV as it makes me feel poorly.
  • At 20:30 I brush my teeth, for the full 3 minutes, and I floss. I do this downstairs in our little bathroom because I found by the time I got upstairs I was just to exhausted to do my teeth without triggering a load of adrenaline, which would keep me awake.
  • In between these times I may write blogs, which I don’t actually write, I speak into my iPad and it turns it into text. I proof read it as I go along and change things that it’s gotten wrong. Some bits that it turns my spoken word into can be really funny and have the potential to get me into trouble too. LoL … I would like to ask here that if you ever find any silly typos please let me know because it’s important to me for the blog to be the best it can be but I also have to work within my limitations, which will lead to mistakes.
  • I often get insomnia, even though I’m totally exhausted. I find this mostly happens if I’ve been especially exhausted and had to trigger adrenaline in order to do stuff. The price I pay is adrenaline I can’t get rid of and gives me insomnia.
  • I often realise I’m very hungry when I’m lay in bed trying to fall asleep. I think this is because I often don’t eat enough during the day. So I will get up, have a small bowl of cereals, or a few crackers, something light and go back to bed and fall asleep instantly.

What has become apparent is that I am, daily, living outside my energy envelope because I have PEM every single day. Some days extremely severely.

Starting Point

So, as a starting point, I began by noting down whenever my watch vibrated to tell me I was in, or above, my anaerobic threshold. I added bits of information around what I was doing and for how long I went into anaerobic state. If it was an activity I could stop, then I would stop, rest and recover, then return to the activity. But in reality it really wasn’t often that simple. Psychologically, I have this personality that can’t stop until the job is done. Another reason why I am so sick. And mostly I only do stuff that is absolutely necessary, or that I feel is absolutely necessary, and really it would take as much effort, or even more, to keep stopping and starting.

I even spent a few days completely ignoring the vibratory warnings, when I wanted to get something done. Yes, I did pay a price and felt super unwell again for two weeks for this. Two weeks of major relapse for reaching anaerobic threshold and staying there for less than 15 minutes. Phew that’s a very high price!

I really do have to change … and change fast …

It has been a huge eye opener knowing when I’m in an anaerobic state. I now need to work on S T O P P I N G  as soon as I feel the vibration warning. And also work on eliminating what I can. So really scaling back what I feel is absolutely necessary.

Below you see how my notes started off and you will also find some of my most important findings from this exercise.

  • coming upstairs for bed and brushing teeth (instead brush teeth downstairs at 20:45 every night : set Alexa reminder in lounge)
  • making my coffee first thing in the morning HR consistently reaches high 90s and making a cup of tea takes about 5 mins @ 90-105
  • making the bed takes about 5-7 mins @ HR 100-105
  • combing my hair takes about 3 mins (not combed since last bath) @ HR 120 (absolutely exhausted)
  • ate a croissant HR touched 85 but while digesting it HR continually buzzing above 85-90
  • had to get water to take my tablets whilst alrready above my ETA so HR is now flittering between 90–100 (and my muscles are shaking internally)
  • tea (as in food not drink) : HR over 85 while eating but I lay down after tea HR stayed under 81

How to refine this and start to at least be aware of my energy envelope is my next step.

Midway

Things are getting so bloody serious now. I’m getting sicker by the day so I’ve decided I really do have to stop when the HRPacing app alerts me..

Below you will see how my notes are becoming more refined and you will also find some of my most important findings from this exercise.

  • waking up raises my HR above AT
  • brushing my teeth raises my HR above AT
  • making myself a drink raises my HR above AT
  • sitting up sometimes raises my HR above AT
  • talking sometimes raises my HR above AT
  • laying down sometimes raises my HR above AT
  • even while I am asleep my HR can raise above AT (WTAF)

So the above tells me that I don’t really have full control over this HR issue. But there are some things that consistently raise my HR and maybe that’s where I need to start. And maybe I have to accept that stopping when my watch vibrates and tells me I’m in anaerobic state is simply what I have to do. And it’s clear that AT will be brought on by so many different things and my HR will respond differently on different days to the same things. And that’s OK. What’s not OK is to ignore it and push through.

Endpoint

YES … it is so not OK to ignore my HR rising and the other body signals I get in order to push through …

THIS (ignoring my HR and symptoms in order to push through) IS MAKING ME SICKER BY THE MINUTE …

It’s all OK …

Below you will see how my notes are progressing and you will also find some of my most important findings from this exercise.

  • there’s nothing I can do consistently that doesn’t raise my HR above AT
  • I need to pay attention to my HR not the activity
  • it’s OK to stop what I’m doing and start again if / when I can
  • it’s OK not to be able to start again and just leave what I’m doing
  • it’s OK to stay in bed, lay flat, if anything more raises my HR too high
  • I MUST accept everything as it is
  • and this is OK … it’s all OK …

 I  A M  E N O U G H  … and so are you …

My Final Conclusion

It’s impossible for me to pick a set of activities that I can consistently do and have my HR stay within the safe range. Because even sleep raises my HR, up to 90% of the night some nights. So I have to make my FitBit warnings god and let the warnings it gives me be the deciding factor on what I can and can’t do.

I know if I can also listen, and heed, how I’m actually physically feeling  too I can stay in the safe range. I just have this dreadful habit of being able to ignore how I feel until I’m at a way too serious point.

Making Progress

Although, this has been a very long winded circular experiment, I do feel it’s been worthwhile.

When I started out I knew in my heart I was seriously sick and really should be in bed mostly. But using the FitBit HRPacing app has confirmed this to me.

I accept it and I’m ready to move on …

What Next?

I’m going to spend lots of time perusing this information and trying to work out a plan of how I can accept where I am at in terms of health and ability and see if I can marry the two into a working ‘way of being’.

I have to stop so I don’t keep making myself sicker but I also have to feel independent and not like my life is not worth living.

I don’t want to be dependent on other people to take care of my personal needs … yet, that’s where I may be right now …

How To Accept

I think this will be my next step and I will write about it on my ‘how to accept the unacceptable …’ post, you will be able to read it soon.

 fragmented.ME xXx

Last Updated on 06/04/2021 by fragmented_ME

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My birth name is Denise, but I’m know as Bella to those who love me. I have a first class honours degree in education & psychology and a strong passion to keep learning and educating others ... I have severe ME/CFS and lots of other chronic illnesses and I started this blog as an expansion to my instagram page, where I advocate for chronic illness. I am married and have two grown up boys, or should I say young men. I have three gorgeous grandchildren, one boy and two girls. And despite being chronically sick and housebound I am very happy. 🥰

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10 steps to practicing Radical Acceptance
according to DBT’s founder, Marsha Linehan:

 

1.  Observe that you are questioning or fighting reality (“it shouldn’t be this way”)

2.  Remind yourself that the unpleasant reality is just as it is and cannot be changed (“this is what happened”)

3.  Remind yourself that there are causes for the reality (“this is how things happened”)

4.  Practice accepting with your whole self (mind, body, spirit) - Use accepting self-talk, relaxation techniques, mindfulness and/or imagery

5.  List all of the behaviors you would engage in if you did accept the facts and then engage in those behaviors as if you have already accepted the facts

6.  Imagine, in your mind’s eye, believing what you do not want to accept and rehearse in your mind what you would do if you accepted what seems unacceptable

7.  Attend to body sensations as you think about what you need to accept

8.  Allow disappointment, sadness or grief to arise within you

9.  Acknowledge that life can be worth living even when there is pain

10.  Do pros and cons if you find yourself resisting practicing acceptance

Logo of ijpsych

2009 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 239–241.
doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285: 10.4103/0019-5545.58285
PMCID: PMC2802367
PMID: 20048445

The biochemistry of belief

Address for correspondence: Dr. TS Sathyanarayana Rao, Department of Psychiatry, JSS University, JSS Medical College Hospital, M.G. Road, Mysore - 570 004, India. E-mail: moc.oohay@91oarsst
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

“Man is what he believes”

Anton Chekhov

Beliefs are basically the guiding principles in life that provide direction and meaning in life. Beliefs are the preset, organized filters to our perceptions of the world (external and internal). Beliefs are like ‘Internal commands’ to the brain as to how to represent what is happening, when we congruently believe something to be true. In the absence of beliefs or inability to tap into them, people feel disempowered.

Beliefs originate from what we hear - and keep on hearing from others, ever since we were children (and even before that!). The sources of beliefs include environment, events, knowledge, past experiences, visualization etc. One of the biggest misconceptions people often harbor is that belief is a static, intellectual concept. Nothing can be farther from truth! Beliefs are a choice. We have the power to choose our beliefs. Our beliefs become our reality.

Beliefs are not just cold mental premises, but are ‘hot stuff’ intertwined with emotions (conscious or unconscious). Perhaps, that is why we feel threatened or react with sometimes uncalled for aggression, when we believe our beliefs are being challenged! Research findings have repeatedly pointed out that the emotional brain is no longer confined to the classical locales of the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus.[1] The sensory inputs we receive from the environment undergo a filtering process as they travel across one or more synapses, ultimately reaching the area of higher processing, like the frontal lobes. There, the sensory information enters our conscious awareness. What portion of this sensory information enters is determined by our beliefs. Fortunately for us, receptors on the cell membranes are flexible, which can alter in sensitivity and conformation. In other words, even when we feel stuck ‘emotionally’, there is always a biochemical potential for change and possible growth. When we choose to change our thoughts (bursts of neurochemicals!), we become open and receptive to other pieces of sensory information hitherto blocked by our beliefs! When we change our thinking, we change our beliefs. When we change our beliefs, we change our behavior.

A mention of the ‘Placebo’ is most appropriate at this juncture. Medical history is replete with numerous reported cases where placebos were found to have a profound effect on a variety of disorders. One such astounding case was that of a woman suffering from severe nausea and vomiting. Objective measurements of her gastric contractions indicated a disrupted pattern matching the condition she complained of. Then a ‘new, magical, extremely potent’ drug was offered to her, which would, the doctors proclaimed, undoubtedly cure her nausea. Within a few minutes, her nausea vanished! The very same gastric tests now revealed normal pattern, when, in actuality, she had been given syrup of ipecac, a substance usually used to induce nausea! When the syrup was presented to her, paired with the strong suggestion of relief of nausea, by an authority figure, it acted as a (command) message to the brain that triggered a cascade of self-regulatory biochemical responses within the body.[2] This instance dramatically demonstrates that the influence of placebo could be more potent than expected drug effect.

An important observation was that, part of the placebo response seemed to involve the meaning of the disorder or the illness to the individual. In other words, the person's belief or how she/he interprets (inter-presents or internally represents) directly governs the biological response or behavior. Another remarkable study involved a schizophrenic. This woman was observed to have split personality. Under normal conditions, her blood glucose levels were normal. However, the moment she believed she was diabetic, her entire physiology changed to become that of a diabetic, including elevated blood glucose levels.[3]

Suggestions or symbolic messages shape beliefs that in turn affect our physical well being. Several cases of ‘Disappearance of warts’ have been reported by Ornstein and Sobel wherein they ponder on how the brain translates the suggestions (sometimes using hypnosis) into systematic biochemical battle strategies such as chemical messengers sent to enlist the aid of immune cells in an assault on the microbe-induced miniature tumor or probably small arteries are selectively constricted, cutting off the vital nutrient supply to warts but not touching the neighboring healthy cells.[2]

Findings of carefully designed research indicate that our interpretation of what we are seeing (experiencing) can literally alter our physiology. In fact, all symptoms of medicine work through our beliefs. By subtly transforming the unknown (disease/disorder) into something known, named, tamed and explained, alarm reactions in the brain can be calmed down. All therapies have a hidden, symbolic value and influence on the psyche, besides the direct specific effect they may have on the body.

Just as amazingly life-affirming placebos are, the reverse, “Nocebo' has been observed to be playing its part too. It is associated with negative, life-threatening or disempowering beliefs. Arthur Barsky, a psychiatrist states that it is the patient's expectations – beliefs whether a drug or procedure works or will have side effects – that plays a crucial role in the outcome.[4]

The biochemistry of our body stems from our awareness.[5] Belief-reinforced awareness becomes our biochemistry. Each and every tiny cell in our body is perfectly and absolutely aware of our thoughts, feelings and of course, our beliefs. There is a beautiful saying ‘Nobody grows old. When people stop growing, they become old’. If you believe you are fragile, the biochemistry of your body unquestionably obeys and manifests it. If you believe you are tough (irrespective of your weight and bone density!), your body undeniably mirrors it. When you believe you are depressed (more precisely, when you become consciously aware of your ‘Being depressed’), you stamp the raw data received through your sense organs, with a judgment – that is your personal view – and physically become the ‘interpretation’ as you internalize it. A classic example is ‘Psychosocial dwarfism’, wherein children who feel and believethat they are unloved, translate the perceived lack of love into depleted levels of growth hormone, in contrast to the strongly held view that growth hormone is released according to a preprogrammed schedule coded into the individual's genes!

Providing scientific evidence to support a holistic approach to well being and healthcare, Bruce Lipton sheds light on mechanism underlying healing at cellular level. He emphasizes that ‘love’ is the most healing emotion and ‘placebo’ effect accounts for a substantial percentage of any drug's action, underscoring the significance of beliefs in health and sickness. According to him, as adults, we still believe in and act our lives out based on information we absorbed as children (pathetic indeed!). And the good news is, we can do something about the ‘tape’ our subconscious mind is playing (ol' silly beliefs) and change them NOW.[6] Further recent literature evidences provided knowledge based on scientific principles of biology of belief. There are limited studies on clinics of traditional beliefs and if we get more scientific data, we can use these traditional systems in clinical mental health management. Human belief system is formed by all the experiences learned and experimented filtered through personality.[7] The senses to capture inner and outer perceptions have higher brain potentials. Some questions that arise in this context are, does the integration and acceptance of these perceptions result in the establishment of beliefs? Does the establishment of these beliefs depend on proof demonstrations? The proofs might be the perceptions, which we can directly see or having scientific proof or custom or faith.[8,9] Beliefs are developed as stimuli received as trusted information and stored in the memory. These perceptions are generalized and established into belief. These beliefs are involved in the moral judgment of the person. Beliefs help in decision-making. Bogousslavsky and Inglin explained that, how some physicians were more successful by taking an account of patient beliefs. Beliefs influence factors involved in the development of psychopathology. They also influence the cognitive and emotional assessment, addictiveness, responses to false positives and persistent normal defensive reactions. Total brain function is required in stabilizing the belief and in responding to environmental system. Some of the brain regions and the neural circuits are very important in establishing beliefs and executing emotions. Frontal lobes play a major role in beliefs. Mental representations of the world are integrated with sub-cortical information by prefrontal cortex. Amygdala and Hippocampus are involved in the process of thinking and thus help in execution of beliefs. NMDA receptor is involved in thinking and in the development of beliefs. These beliefs are subjected to challenge. A belief that is subjected to more challenges becomes stronger. When a new stimulus comes, it creates distress in the brain with already existing patterns. The distress results in the release of dopamine (neurotransmitter) to transmit the signal.[10,11] Research findings of Young and Saxe (2008) revealed that medial prefrontal cortex is involved in processing the belief valence.[12] Right temporoparietal junction and precuneus are involved in the processing of beliefs to moral judgment. True beliefs are processed through right temporoparietal junction.[13,14] Saxe (2006) explained that beliefs judging starts at the age of five years citing example of judging of belief questions on short stories by the children.[15] Belief attribution involved activating regions of medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyri and hippocampal regions. Studies by Krummenacher et al, have shown that dopamine levels are associated with paranormal thoughts suggesting the role of dopamine in belief development in the brain.[16] Flannelly et al, illustrated on how primitive brain mechanisms that evolved to assess environmental threats in related psychiatric disorders.[17] Also were highlighted the issues such as the way beliefs can affect psychiatric symptoms through these brain systems. The theories discussed widely are related to (a) link psychiatric disorders to threat assessment and (b) explain how the normal functioning of threat assessment systems can become pathological. It is proposed that three brain structures are implicated in brain disorders in response to threat assessment and self-defense: the regions are the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia and parts of limbic system. The functionality of these regions has great potential to understand mechanism of belief formation and its relevance in neurological functions/dysfunctions. Now it is clear that biology and physiology of belief is an open area for research both at basic and clinical level. The future directions are to develop validated experimental or sound theoretical interpretation to make ‘BELIEF’ as a potential clinical management tool.

Perceptual shifts are the prerequisites for changing the belief and hence changing the biochemistry of our body favorably. Our innate desire and willingness to learn and grow lead to newer perceptions. When we consciously allow newer perceptions to enter the brain by seeking new experiences, learning new skills and changed perspectives, our body can respond in newer ways –this is the true secret of youth. Beliefs (internal representations/interpretations) thus hold the magic wand of remarkable transformations in our biochemical profile. If you are chasing joy and peace all the time everywhere but exclaim exhausted, ‘Oh, it's to be found nowhere!’, why not change your interpretation of NOWHERE to ‘NOW HERE’; just by introducing a gap, you change your awareness – that changes your belief and that changes your biochemistry in an instant!

Everything exists as a ‘Matrix of pure possibilities’ akin to ‘formless’ molten wax or moldable soft clay. We shape them into anything we desire by choosing to do so, prompted, dictated (consciously or unconsciously) by our beliefs. The awareness that we are part of these ever-changing fields of energy that constantly interact with one another is what gives us the key hitherto elusive, to unlock the immense power within us. And it is our awareness of this awesome truth that changes everything. Then we transform ourselves from passive onlookers to powerful creators. Our beliefs provide the script to write or re-write the code of our reality.

Thoughts and beliefs are an integral part of the brain's operations. Neurotransmitters could be termed the ‘words’ brain uses to communicate with exchange of information occurring constantly, mediated by these molecular messengers. Unraveling the mystery of this molecular music induced by the magic of beliefs, dramatically influencing the biochemistry of brain could be an exciting adventure and a worth pursuing cerebral challenge.

REFERENCES

1. Candace Pert. Molecules of emotion: Why you feel the way you feel. New York, USA: Scribner Publications; 2003. ISBN-10: 0684846349.
2. Ornstein R, Sobel D. The healing brain: Breakthrough discoveries about how the brain keeps us healthy. USA: Malor Books; 1999. ISBN-10: 1883536170.
3. Robbins A. Unlimited power: The new science of personal excellence. UK: Simon and Schuster; 1986. ISBN 0-7434-0939-6.
4. Braden G. The spontaneous healing of belief. Hay House Publishers (India) Pvt. Ltd; 2008. ISBN 978-81-89988-39-5.
5. Chopra D. Ageless body, timeless mind: The quantum alternative to growing old. Hormony Publishers; 1994. ISBN -10: 0517882124.
6. Lipton B. The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter and miracles. Mountain of Love Publishers; 2005. ISBN 978-0975991473.
7. Bogousslavsky J, Inglin M. Beliefs and the brain. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:129–32. [PubMed: 17622716]
8. Gundersen L. Faith and healing. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:169–72. [PubMed: 10644287]
9. Mueller PS, Plevak DJ, Rummans TA. Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:1225–35. [PubMed: 11761504]
10. Patel AD, Peretz I, Tramo M, Labreque R. Processing prosodic and musical patterns: A neuropsychological investigation. Brain Lang. 1998;61:123–44. [PubMed: 9448936]
11. Tramo MJ. Biology and music. Music of the hemispheres. Science. 2001;291:54–6. [PubMed: 11192009]
12. Young L, Saxe R. The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. Neuroimage. 2008;40:1912–20. [PubMed: 18342544]
13. Aichhorn M, Perner J, Weiss B, Kronbichler M, Staffen W, Ladurner G. Temporo-parietal junction activity in theory-of-mind tasks: Falseness, beliefs, or attention. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:1179–92. [PubMed: 18702587]
14. Abraham A, Rakoczy H, Werning M, von Cramon DY, Schubotz RI. Matching mind to world and vice versa: Functional dissociations between belief and desire mental state processing. Soc Neurosci. 2009;1:18. [PubMed: 19670085]
15. Saxe R. Why and how to study Theory of Mind with fMRI. Brain Res. 2006;1079:57–65. [PubMed: 16480695]
16. Krummenacher P, Mohr C, Haker H, Brugger P. Dopamine, paranormal belief, and the detection of meaningful stimuli. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009 Jun 30; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed: 19642883]
17. Flannelly KJ, Koenig HG, Galek K, Ellison CG. Beliefs, mental health, and evolutionary threat assessment systems in the brain. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:996–1003. [PubMed: 18091193]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

HRPacing ...

Description

Heart Rate Pacing is a technique used to stay within ones energy reserves. The anaerobic threshold (AT) is the heart rate at which aerobic energy surges. The threshold is often around about 60% of a ones maximum heart rate, though each person is different and an individual's threshold may vary from day to day or within a day.

(Note: Maximum heart rate is 220 minus ones age. For a 50 year old, 60% of maximum heart rate is (220 - 50) x 0.6 = 102 bpm.)

Features:

* Changes colour to indicate:

- Resting - (REST) Lavender

- Recovery (RECOVER) - Green (RHR + 10%)

- Exertion (EXERT) - Orange (RHR + 20%)

- Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - Red ((220-50)x0.6)

* Set an alert based on:

- reaching Anaerobic Threshold Zone, or

- custom set Maximum Heart Rate.

* Set the Anaerobic Threshold Tolerance from 0.6 (default) to 0.5 if desired.

* Set a custom interval between alerts (15 secs default).

* Displays 12/24 hour clock based on user settings in Fitbit profile.

ME Awareness Fundraising : Ten Books In Ten Months

 

I am fundraising for The ME Trust UK as part of ME Awareness 2021

I will be fundraising for ten months starting in May 2021 through to end of February 2022.

Please take the time to read what it is about and donate if you can.

I am going to read 10 books in 10 months and document them on my ‘ten books in ten months ...’ page.

Please click the link above or below to donate and help me raise as much money as we can
for The ME Trust UK

I have been sick since 1984. It took till 2001 for doctors to diagnose me with ME.
Initially, I was mildly sick then moderately but in recent years I’ve progressed to being severely affected.
I am housebound and often bedbound for months on end.

I really want to raise awareness and to raise money to help research #endME.

I am planning on reading ten books in ten months starting 12th May, which is international ME Awareness Day.
At one time in my life I could have read ten books in ten days. But this challenge will be hard for me to do.

So please please if you can support me and help raise money for the ME Trust UK

YOU CAN DONATE BY CLICKING THE LINK BELOW

ME Awareness Fundraising : Ten Books In Ten Months

[give_form id="3285"]

help me fund my ME treatment ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for the introductory workshop by donating £65

you can pay for an individual care plan by donating £71

you can pay for a monthly session by donating £71

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical review by donating £121

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

you can pay for the individual assessment by donating £141

you can pay for a medical assessment by donating £187

Thank you very much !

help me fund my assessment treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for a medical assessment by donating £187

you can pay for an initial assessment by donating £141

you can pay for a medical review by donating £121

Thank you very much !

help me fund my preparation for rehabilitation treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for the introductory workshop by donating £65

you can pay for an individual care plan by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my rehabilitation treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for a monthly session by donating £71

Thank you very much !

help me fund my follow up treatments ...

... help me fund my ME treatment ...

you can choose to donate as much or as little by sliding the slider along

you can pay for an individual progression plan by donating £71

you can pay for a medical follow up by donating £121

Thank you very much !

ME Awareness Fundraising : Ten Books In Ten Months

 

I am fundraising for The ME Trust UK as part of ME Awareness 2021

I will be fundraising for ten months starting in May 2021 through to end of February 2022.

You will see this pop once in each week that you visit my site during this ten month period.

Please take the time to read what it is about and donate if you can.

I am going to read 10 books in 10 months and document them on my ‘ten books in ten months ...’ page.

Please click the link above or below to donate and help me raise as much money as we can
for The ME Trust UK

I have been sick since 1984. It took till 2001 for doctors to diagnose me with ME.
Initially, I was mildly sick then moderately but in recent years I’ve progressed to being severely affected.
I am housebound and often bedbound for months on end.

I really want to raise awareness and to raise money to help research #endME.

I am planning on reading ten books in ten months starting 12th May, which is international ME Awareness Day.
At one time in my life I could have read ten books in ten days. But this challenge will be hard for me to do.

So please please if you can support me and help raise money for the ME Trust UK.

YOU CAN DONATE BY CLICKING THE LINK BELOW

ME Awareness Fundraising : Ten Books In Ten Months

HRPacing ...

Description

Heart Rate Pacing is a technique used to stay within ones energy reserves. The anaerobic threshold (AT) is the heart rate at which aerobic energy surges. The threshold is often around about 60% of a ones maximum heart rate, though each person is different and an individual's threshold may vary from day to day or within a day.

(Note: Maximum heart rate is 220 minus ones age. For a 50 year old, 60% of maximum heart rate is (220 - 50) x 0.6 = 102 bpm.)

Features:

* Changes colour to indicate:

- Resting - (REST) Lavender

- Recovery (RECOVER) - Green (RHR + 10%)

- Exertion (EXERT) - Orange (RHR + 20%)

- Anaerobic Threshold (AT) - Red ((220-50)x0.6)

* Set an alert based on:

- reaching Anaerobic Threshold Zone, or

- custom set Maximum Heart Rate.

* Set the Anaerobic Threshold Tolerance from 0.6 (default) to 0.5 if desired.

* Set a custom interval between alerts (15 secs default).

* Displays 12/24 hour clock based on user settings in Fitbit profile.

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